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Science-Backed Dog Food for a Longer Expected Lifespan
Every single one of our ingredients were picked specifically to provide important nutrients and health benefits according to modern research.
Below we have summarized 250 clinical studies scientifically supporting the ingredients we use in Yumwoof Natural Pet Food products.
Ingredient / Macro
Anti-inflammatory Chia seeds
Alpha-linolenic acid displayed analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties are part of a fruit oil.
Bioscience Reports, 2021
Paradee N, Koonyosying P, Kusirisin W, et al. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties of Thai Perilla frutescence fruit oil in animals. Biosci Rep. 2021;41(1):BSR20203166. doi:10.1042/BSR20203166 [*]
ACV beneficial for suppression of obesity-induxed oxidative stress and reduce risk of obesity-associated diseases by preventing atherogenic risk.
Journal of Medicinal Food, 2018
Halima BH, Sonia G, Sarra K, Houda BJ, Fethi BS, Abdallah A. Apple Cider Vinegar Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Reduces the Risk of Obesity in High-Fat-Fed Male Wistar Rats. J Med Food. 2018 Jan;21(1):70-80. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2017.0039. Epub 2017 Nov 1. PMID: 29091513. [*]
Hlebowicz J, Darwiche G, Björgell O, Almér LO. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2007;7:46. Published 2007 Dec 20. doi:10.1186/1471-230X-7-46 [*]
ACV had a significant favourable effect on fasting plasma glucose and blood lipid levels.
BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 2021
Hadi A, Pourmasoumi M, Najafgholizadeh A, Clark CCT, Esmaillzadeh A. The effect of apple cider vinegar on lipid profiles and glycemic parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2021;21(1):179. Published 2021 Jun 29. doi:10.1186/s12906-021-03351-w [*]
ACV is highly beneficial in metabolic disorders (e.g., obesity or type II diabetes) caused by high-caloric food.
Journal of Diabetes Research, 2020
Ousaaid D, Laaroussi H, Bakour M, et al. Beneficial Effects of Apple Vinegar on Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in Hypercaloric-Fed Rats. J Diabetes Res. 2020;2020:9284987. Published 2020 Jul 10. doi:10.1155/2020/9284987 [*]
Review: ACV side effects are low to negligible. It is safe for consumption.
European Journal of Nutrition, 2020
Launholt TL, Kristiansen CB, Hjorth P. Safety and side effects of apple vinegar intake and its effect on metabolic parameters and body weight: a systematic review. Eur J Nutr. 2020 Sep;59(6):2273-2289. doi: 10.1007/s00394-020-02214-3. Epub 2020 Mar 13. PMID: 32170375. [*]
Low coenzyme Q10 (high in beef and chicken liver) reduced heart failure's effects.
Journal of Cardiac Failure, 2000
Harker-Murray AK, Tajik AJ, Ishikura F, Meyer D, Burnett JC, Redfield MM. The role of coenzyme Q10 in the pathophysiology and therapy of experimental congestive heart failure in the dog. J Card Fail. 2000 Sep;6(3):233-42. doi: 10.1054/jcaf.2000.8839. PMID: 10997750. [*]
Overviw of bef liver composition - rich source of amino acids (more nutritious than muscle tissue).
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 2014
Li RR, Yu QL, Han L, Cao H. Nutritional Characteristics and Active Components in Liver from Wagyu×Qinchuan Cattle. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 2014;34(2):214-220. doi:10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.214 [*]
Beef liver improved hemoglobin production in dogs.
Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1927
Riecker HH. A STUDY OF EXPERIMENTAL ANEMIA IN DOGS: THE ACTION OF BEEF LIVER AND IRON SALTS ON HEMOGLOBIN REGENERATION. J Clin Invest. 1927 Dec;5(1):141-60. doi: 10.1172/JCI100146. PMID: 16693780; PMCID: PMC434702. [*]
Liver is a source of vitamin A, all B vitamins, vitamin C, iron, selenium, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 2012
Hassan AA, Sandanger TM, Brustad M. Level of selected nutrients in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.). Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:17997. Published 2012 Mar 19. doi:10.3402/ijch.v71i0.17997 [*]
Blueberries protect against renal structural injury and dysfunction.
PLoS One, 2014
Nair AR, Elks CM, Vila J, Del Piero F, Paulsen DB, Francis J. A blueberry-enriched diet improves renal function and reduces oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome animals: potential mechanism of TLR4-MAPK signaling pathway. PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e111976. Published 2014 Nov 5. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111976 [*]
Blueberries contain anthocyanins which benefit and protect eye health via anti-oxidantant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2018
Huang W, Yan Z, Li D, Ma Y, Zhou J, Sui Z. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Blueberry Anthocyanins on High Glucose-Induced Human Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:1862462. Published 2018 Feb 22. doi:10.1155/2018/1862462 [*]
Supplementing the diet with blueberries may protect against oxidative damage in sled dogs.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 2006
Dunlap KL, Reynolds AJ, Duffy LK. Total antioxidant power in sled dogs supplemented with blueberries and the comparison of blood parameters associated with exercise. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006 Apr;143(4):429-34. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2005.09.007. Epub 2006 Mar 6. PMID: 16520073. [*]
Blueberry is rich in flavonoids (mainly anthocyanidins), polyphenols (procyanidin), phenolic acids, pyruvic acid, chlorogenic acid, and others, which have anticancer, anti-obesity, prevent degenerative diseases, anti-inflammation, protective properties for vision and liver, prevent heart diseases, antidiabetes, improve brain function, protective lung properties, strong bones, enhance immunity, prevent cardiovascular diseases, and improve cognitive decline.
International Journal of Molecular Sciencies, 2018
Ma L, Sun Z, Zeng Y, Luo M, Yang J. Molecular Mechanism and Health Role of Functional Ingredients in Blueberry for Chronic Disease in Human Beings. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(9):2785. Published 2018 Sep 16. doi:10.3390/ijms19092785 [*]
Blueberries reduce pain, stiffness, and difficulty performing daily activites in osteoarthritic individuals; improve gait performance.
Du C, Smith A, Avalos M, et al. Blueberries Improve Pain, Gait Performance, and Inflammation in Individuals with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis. Nutrients. 2019;11(2):290. Published 2019 Jan 29. doi:10.3390/nu11020290 [*]
Blueberries can beneficially affect cardiometabolic health parameters.
Currrent Developments in Nutrition, 2020
Stote KS, Wilson MM, Hallenbeck D, Thomas K, Rourke JM, Sweeney MI, Gottschall-Pass KT, Gosmanov AR. Effect of Blueberry Consumption on Cardiometabolic Health Parameters in Men with Type 2 Diabetes: An 8-Week, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Curr Dev Nutr. 2020 Mar 9;4(4):nzaa030. doi: 10.1093/cdn/nzaa030. PMID: 32337475; PMCID: PMC7170047. [*]
Epidemiological studies associate regular, moderate intake of blueberries and/or anthocyanins with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, death, and type 2 diabetes, and with improved weight maintenance and neuroprotection.
Advances in Nutrition, 2020
Kalt W, Cassidy A, Howard LR, et al. Recent Research on the Health Benefits of Blueberries and Their Anthocyanins. Adv Nutr. 2020;11(2):224-236. doi:10.1093/advances/nmz065 [*]
Review: a source of beta-carotene (e.g., carrots) is critical for dogs. Low vitamin A can cause weight loss, poor immune functioning and visual problems in dogs, and impede normal growth in puppies.
Scientific World Journal, 2016
Alice S. Green, Andrea J. Fascetti, "Meeting the Vitamin A Requirement: The Efficacy and Importance of β-Carotene in Animal Species", The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2016, Article ID 7393620, 22 pages, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7393620 [*]
Overview of chia seeds nutritional profile: contains calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamin C, vitamin E, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, folate and more
Kulczyński B, Kobus-Cisowska J, Taczanowski M, Kmiecik D, Gramza-Michałowska A. The Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Chia Seeds-Current State of Knowledge. Nutrients. 2019 May 31;11(6):1242. doi: 10.3390/nu11061242. PMID: 31159190; PMCID: PMC6627181. [*]
Dogs supplemented with fibre (high in chia seeds) reduce obesity and mitigated canine diabetes.
British Journal of Nutrition, 2009
Bosch G, Verbrugghe A, Hesta M, Holst JJ, van der Poel AF, Janssens GP, Hendriks WH. The effects of dietary fibre type on satiety-related hormones and voluntary food intake in dogs. Br J Nutr. 2009 Jul;102(2):318-25. doi: 10.1017/S0007114508149194. Epub 2009 Jan 15. PMID: 19144213. [*]
Chia seeds are a very high source of dietary fibre: 34-40g per 100g of seeds.
Knez Hrnčič M, Ivanovski M, Cör D, Knez Ž. Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.): An Overview-Phytochemical Profile, Isolation Methods, and Application. Molecules. 2019;25(1):11. Published 2019 Dec 18. doi:10.3390/molecules25010011 [*]
Chia seeds reduced arthritis via anti-inflammatory effects in obese and non-obese rats.
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 2020
Mohamed DA, Mohamed RS, Fouda K. Anti-inflammatory potential of chia seeds oil and mucilage against adjuvant-induced arthritis in obese and non-obese rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2020 Mar 5;31(4):/j/jbcpp.2020.31.issue-4/jbcpp-2019-0236/jbcpp-2019-0236.xml. doi: 10.1515/jbcpp-2019-0236. PMID: 32134733. [*]
Chia seeds signifcantly reduced blood pressure in a randomized trial.
Nutrition and Health, 2021
Alwosais EZM, Al-Ozairi E, Zafar TA, Alkandari S. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) supplementation to the diet of adults with type 2 diabetes improved systolic blood pressure: A randomized controlled trial. Nutr Health. 2021 Jun;27(2):181-189. doi: 10.1177/0260106020981819. Epub 2021 Feb 2. PMID: 33530854. [*]
Chia seeds beneficial in managing feline idiopathic hypercalcemia
Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 2020
Fantinati M, Priymenko N. Managing Feline Idiopathic Hypercalcemia With Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.): A Case Series. Front Vet Sci. 2020;7:421. Published 2020 Jul 22. doi:10.3389/fvets.2020.00421 [*]
Chia seeds increased bone mineral content and improved hepatic and intestinal morphology in rats.
Montes Chañi EM, Pacheco SOS, Martínez GA, et al. Long-Term Dietary Intake of Chia Seed Is Associated with Increased Bone Mineral Content and Improved Hepatic and Intestinal Morphology in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Nutrients. 2018;10(7):922. Published 2018 Jul 19. doi:10.3390/nu10070922 [*]
Review: Chia seeds lowered blood glucose levels and blood pressure.
Nutrition Reviews, 2018
Teoh SL, Lai NM, Vanichkulpitak P, Vuksan V, Ho H, Chiayakunapruk N. Clinical evidence on dietary supplementation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2018 Apr 1;76(4):219-242. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nux071. PMID: 29452425. [*]
Alpha-linolenic acid (high in chia seeds) protects against stroke and neuro damage in rats.
BioMed Research International, 2015
Blondeau N, Lipsky RH, Bourourou M, Duncan MW, Gorelick PB, Marini AM. Alpha-linolenic acid: an omega-3 fatty acid with neuroprotective properties-ready for use in the stroke clinic?. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:519830. doi:10.1155/2015/519830 [*]
Alpha-linolenic acid affects LDL cholesterol more effectively than EPA/DHA.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006
Goyens PL, Mensink RP. Effects of alpha-linolenic acid versus those of EPA/DHA on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy elderly subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Aug;60(8):978-84. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602408. Epub 2006 Feb 15. PMID: 16482073. [*]
Owners commonly reported opting for coconut oil after their dogs receive a diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy (IE).
Research in Veterinary Science, 2018
Berk BA, Packer RMA, Law TH, Volk HA. Investigating owner use of dietary supplements in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Res Vet Sci. 2018 Aug;119:276-284. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2018.07.004. Epub 2018 Jul 24. PMID: 30064067. [*]
Administration of triglyceride oils (around half of which was coconut oil) led to significant reduction in seizures.
The Veterinary Record, 2020
Molina J, Jean-Philippe C, Conboy L, Añor S, de la Fuente C, Wrzosek MA, Spycher A, Luchsinger E, Wenger-Riggenbach B, Montoliu P, Gandini G, Menchetti M, Ribeiro JC, Varejão A, Ferreira A, Zanghi B, Volk HA. Efficacy of medium Chian triglyceride oil dietary supplementation in reducing seizure frequency in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy without cluster seizures: a non-blinded, prospective clinical trial. Vet Rec. 2020 Oct 31;187(9):356. doi: 10.1136/vr.105410. Epub 2020 Jun 12. PMID: 32532842; PMCID: PMC7799411. [*]
Review of studies for dogs, humans, and rats found MCTs (including coconut oil) led to a signficant decrease in epileptic symptoms.
Han FY, Conboy-Schmidt L, Rybachuk G, Volk HA, Zanghi B, Pan Y, Borges K. Dietary medium Chian triglycerides for management of epilepsy: New data from human, dog, and rodent studies. Epilepsia. 2021 Aug;62(8):1790-1806. doi: 10.1111/epi.16972. Epub 2021 Jun 25. PMID: 34169513; PMCID: PMC8453917. [*]
Medium-Chian triglycerides improve cognitive functioning and manage cognitive dysfunction syndrome in dogs.
Frontiers in Nutrition, 2018
Pan Y, Landsberg G, Mougeot I, et al. Efficacy of a Therapeutic Diet on Dogs With Signs of Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome (CDS): A Prospective Double Blinded Placebo Controlled Clinical Study. Front Nutr. 2018;5:127. Published 2018 Dec 12. doi:10.3389/fnut.2018.00127 [*]
Coconut oil has attracted attention due to its hypocholesterolemic, anticancer, antihepatosteatotic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and skin moisturizing properties.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2021
Deen A, Visvanathan R, Wickramarachchi D, Marikkar N, Nammi S, Jayawardana BC, Liyanage R. Chemical composition and health benefits of coconut oil: an overview. J Sci Food Agric. 2021 Apr;101(6):2182-2193. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.10870. Epub 2020 Oct 29. PMID: 33022082. [*]
Limited studies showed that topical use of coconut oil helps in the prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis and oil pulling for the prevention of dental caries.
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome, 2021
Jayawardena R, Swarnamali H, Ranasinghe P, Misra A. Health effects of coconut oil: Summary of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analysis of interventional studies. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2021 Mar-Apr;15(2):549-555. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2021.02.032. Epub 2021 Mar 3. PMID: 33689936. [*]
Compared with animal oils, coconut oil demonstrated a better lipid profile in comparison with plant oils, coconut oil significantly increased HDL-C and LDL-C.
Nutrition Reviews, 2020
Teng M, Zhao YJ, Khoo AL, Yeo TC, Yong QW, Lim BP. Impact of coconut oil consumption on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2020 Mar 1;78(3):249-259. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuz074. PMID: 31769848. [*]
Cranberry may have a slightly protectative effect against E. coli UTIs.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2017
Olby, N J et al. “Effect of Cranberry Extract on the Frequency of Bacteriuria in Dogs with Acute Thoracolumbar Disk Herniation: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.” Journal of veterinary internal medicine vol. 31,1 (2017): 60-68. doi:10.1111/jvim.14613 [*]
Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E coli adherence to MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs.
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2016
Chou HI, Chen KS, Wang HC, Lee WM. Effects of cranberry extract on prevention of urinary tract infection in dogs and on adhesion of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Am J Vet Res. 2016 Apr;77(4):421-7. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.77.4.421. PMID: 27027843. [*]
Cranberry extracts did not induce significant changes in fecel microbiota, nor body mass gains.
AIMS Microbiology, 2021
Chettaoui R, Mayot G, De Almeida L, Di Martino P. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) dietary supplementation and fecal microbiota of Wistar rats. AIMS Microbiol. 2021;7(2):257-270. Published 2021 Jun 30. doi:10.3934/microbiol.2021016 [*]
Cranberries prevent UTIs, and phytochemicals modulate gut microbiotia - potentially beneficial for CKD complications.
Food & Function, 2019
de Almeida Alvarenga L , Borges NA , Moreira LSG , Resende Teixeira KT , Carraro-Eduardo JC , Dai L , Stenvinkel P , Lindholm B , Mafra D . Cranberries - potential benefits in patients with chronic kidney disease. Food Funct. 2019 Jun 19;10(6):3103-3112. doi: 10.1039/c9fo00375d. PMID: 31140512. [*]
Review: Cranberries are a distinct source of flavonoids and phenolic acids that protect against UTIs.
González de Llano D, Moreno-Arribas MV, Bartolomé B. Cranberry Polyphenols and Prevention against Urinary Tract Infections: Relevant Considerations. Molecules. 2020;25(15):3523. Published 2020 Aug 1. doi:10.3390/molecules25153523 [*]
Cranberry extract equivalent to synthetic antioxidants.
Journal of Veterinary Research, 2018
Glodde F, Günal M, Kinsel ME, AbuGhazaleh A. Effects of Natural Antioxidants on The Stability of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Dog Food. J Vet Res. 2018 Mar 30;62(1):103-108. doi: 10.1515/jvetres-2018-0014. PMID: 29978134; PMCID: PMC5957468. [*]
Chicken egg white derivatives enhance the fuction of white blood cells.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 1995
Hirota Y, Yang MP, Araki S, Yoshihara K, Furusawa S, Yasuda M, Mohamed A, Matsumoto Y, Onodera T. Enhancing effects of chicken egg white derivatives on the phagocytic response in the dog. J Vet Med Sci. 1995 Oct;57(5):825-9. doi: 10.1292/jvms.57.825. PMID: 8593287. [*]
Latshaw JD, Osman M. Distribution of selenium in egg white and yolk after feeding natural and synthetic selenium compounds. Poult Sci. 1975 Jul;54(4):1244-52. doi: 10.3382/ps.0541244. PMID: 1161714. [*]
Dogs and cats overfed selenium did not show signs of selenosis.
Journal of Animal Science, 2012
Todd SE, Thomas DG, Bosch G, Hendriks WH. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium. J Anim Sci. 2012 Aug;90(8):2549-55. doi: 10.2527/jas.2011-3911. Epub 2012 Feb 3. PMID: 22307479. [*]
Lower selenim digestibility in canned versus kibble diets.
PLoS One, 2016
van Zelst M, Hesta M, Gray K, Beech K, Cools A, Alexander LG, Du Laing G, Janssens GP. Selenium Digestibility and Bioactivity in Dogs: What the Can Can, the Kibble Can't. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 4;11(4):e0152709. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152709. PMID: 27043433; PMCID: PMC4820116. [*]
Overview of nutritional value of eggs: strong protein and nutrient profile.
Réhault-Godbert S, Guyot N, Nys Y. The Golden Egg: Nutritional Value, Bioactivities, and Emerging Benefits for Human Health. Nutrients. 2019;11(3):684. Published 2019 Mar 22. doi:10.3390/nu11030684 [*]
Egg-protein diets useful in helping dogs with induced chronic renal failure.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 1988
Polzin DJ, Osborne CA. The importance of egg protein in reduced protein diets designed for dogs with renal failure. J Vet Intern Med. 1988 Jan-Mar;2(1):15-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.1988.tb01972.x. PMID: 3221351. [*]
Flaxseed supplementation improved kidney function and reduced systemating inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic rats.
PLoS One, 2021
Al Za’abi M, Ali H, Ali BH (2021) Effect of flaxseed on systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic rats with or without chronic kidney disease. PLoS ONE 16(10): e0258800. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258800 [*]
High fibre diets are prebiotic - producing substantial changes in a dog's guy microbiome (flaxseeds are rich in soluble fibre).
Frontiers in Microbiology, 2020
Wernimont SM, Radosevich J, Jackson MI, Ephraim E, Badri DV, MacLeay JM, Jewell DE and Suchodolski JS (2020) The Effects of Nutrition on the Gastrointestinal Microbiome of Cats and Dogs: Impact on Health and Disease. Front. Microbiol. 11:1266. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.01266 [*]
Flaxseed supplementation led to a significant improvement in skin and coat condition after 28 days.
Veterinary Dermatology, 2001
Rees CA, Bauer JE, Burkholder WJ, Kennis RA, Dunbar BL, Bigley KE. Effects of dietary flax seed and sunflower seed supplementation on normal canine serum polyunsaturated fatty acids and skin and hair coat condition scores. Vet Dermatol. 2001 Apr;12(2):111-7. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3164.2001.00234.x. PMID: 11360337. [*]
Flaxseed lignans may benefit cancer prevention and treatment.
De Silva SF, Alcorn J. Flaxseed Lignans as Important Dietary Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention and Treatment: Chemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Molecular Targets. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2019;12(2):68. Published 2019 May 5. doi:10.3390/ph12020068 [*]
Flaxseed has benefits associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Parikh M, Maddaford TG, Austria JA, Aliani M, Netticadan T, Pierce GN. Dietary Flaxseed as a Strategy for Improving Human Health. Nutrients. 2019;11(5):1171. Published 2019 May 25. doi:10.3390/nu11051171 [*]
Whole flaxseed, but not flaxseed oil and lignan extract, has significant effects on improving glycemic control.
Nutrition Reviews, 2018
Mohammadi-Sartang M, Sohrabi Z, Barati-Boldaji R, Raeisi-Dehkordi H, Mazloom Z. Flaxseed supplementation on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Nutr Rev. 2018 Feb 1;76(2):125-139. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nux052. PMID: 29228348. [*]
The cardiovascular effects of dietary flaxseed have included an antihypertensive action, antiatherogenic effects, a lowering of cholesterol, an anti-inflammatory action, and an inhibition of arrhythmias.
American Journal of Physiology, 2018
Parikh M, Netticadan T, Pierce GN. Flaxseed: its bioactive components and their cardiovascular benefits. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2018 Feb 1;314(2):H146-H159. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00400.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 3. PMID: 29101172. [*]
Consumption of flaxseed may lower blood pressure slightly. The beneficial potential of flaxseed to reduce blood pressure (especially diastolic blood pressure) may be greater when it is consumed as a whole seed and for a duration of >12 wk.
Journal of Nutrition, 2015
Khalesi S, Irwin C, Schubert M. Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Nutr. 2015 Apr;145(4):758-65. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.205302. Epub 2015 Mar 4. Erratum in: J Nutr. 2015 Nov;145(11):2633. PMID: 25740909. [*]
Human-grade pet foods are highly digestible maintaining normal dog characteristics.
Journal of Animal Science, 2021
Do S, Phungviwatnikul T, de Godoy MRC, Swanson KS. Nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics, microbiota, and metabolites in dogs fed human-grade foods. J Anim Sci. 2021 Feb 1;99(2):skab028. doi: 10.1093/jas/skab028. PMID: 33511410; PMCID: PMC8611730. [*]
Poultry meat consumption is protective or neutral on cancer risk.
Food and Nutrition Research, 2015
Marangoni F, Corsello G, Cricelli C, et al. Role of poultry meat in a balanced diet aimed at maintaining health and wellbeing: an Italian consensus document. Food Nutr Res. 2015;59:27606. Published 2015 Jun 9. doi:10.3402/fnr.v59.27606 [*]
High protein, high fibre diets improve weight loss in obese dogs.
Veterinary Journal, 2010
German AJ, Holden SL, Bissot T, Morris PJ, Biourge V. A high protein high fibre diet improves weight loss in obese dogs. Vet J. 2010 Mar;183(3):294-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.12.004. Epub 2009 Jan 12. PMID: 19138868. [*]
Pet owners unaware of the risks of a raw food diet for pets.
BMC Veterinary Research, 2019
Morelli G, Bastianello S, Catellani P, Ricci R. Raw meat-based diets for dogs: survey of owners' motivations, attitudes and practices. BMC Vet Res. 2019;15(1):74. Published 2019 Mar 4. doi:10.1186/s12917-019-1824-x [*]
Protein quantity and quality are critical to maintaining muscle mass and a healthy life.
Frontiers in Nutrition, 2019
Burd NA, McKenna CF, Salvador AF, Paulussen KJM, Moore DR. Dietary Protein Quantity, Quality, and Exercise Are Key to Healthy Living: A Muscle-Centric Perspective Across the Lifespan. Front Nutr. 2019;6:83. Published 2019 Jun 6. doi:10.3389/fnut.2019.00083 [*]
Linoleic acid helps maintain the skin barrier, promote wound healing, and soothe inflammation. (Linoleic acid is found in oats.)
Clinical Dermatology, 2010
McCusker MM, Grant-Kels JM. Healing fats of the skin: the structural and immunologic roles of the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Clin Dermatol. 2010 Jul-Aug;28(4):440-51. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2010.03.020. PMID: 20620762. [*]
B vitamins play a critical role in producing healthy skin cells, needed for healing. (B vitamins found in oats.)
Advances in Skin and Wound Care, 2018
Rembe JD, Fromm-Dornieden C, Stuermer EK. Effects of Vitamin B Complex and Vitamin C on Human Skin Cells: Is the Perceived Effect Measurable? Adv Skin Wound Care. 2018 May;31(5):225-233. doi: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000531351.85866.d9. PMID: 29672394. [*]
Following daily oat consumption, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly reduced below baseline.
Journal of Medical Association of Thailand, 2013
Thongoun P, Pavadhgul P, Bumrungpert A, Satitvipawee P, Harjani Y, Kurilich A. Effect of oat consumption on lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic adults. J Med Assoc Thai. 2013 Dec;96 Suppl 5:S25-32. PMID: 24851570. [*]
Dogs fed oats saw lower levels of total cholesterol, LDLs, and VLDLs compared to baseline.
PLoS One, 2018
Ferreira LG, Endrighi M, Lisenko KG, de Oliveira MRD, Damasceno MR, Claudino JA, et al. (2018) Oat beta-glucan as a dietary supplement for dogs. PLoS ONE 13(7): e0201133. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201133 [*]
Overview of oats dietary profile: high in vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds, includng calcium, iron, magnesium, copper, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin.
Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2015
Rasane, P., Jha, A., Sabikhi, L. et al. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review. J Food Sci Technol 52, 662–675 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1072-1 [*]
Beta-glucans helps bolster the adaptive immune systems response to vaccines in dogs.
Frontiers in Immunology, 2020
Paris S, Chapat L, Martin-Cagnon N, Durand PY, Piney L, Cariou C, Bergamo P, Bonnet JM, Poulet H, Freyburger L, De Luca K. β-Glucan as Trained Immunity-Based Adjuvants for Rabies Vaccines in Dogs. Front Immunol. 2020 Oct 8;11:564497. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.564497. PMID: 33162977; PMCID: PMC7580252. [*]
Beta-glucans are critical to helping beneficial gut microbiota.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2018
Jayachandran M, Chen J, Chung SSM, Xu B. A critical review on the impacts of β-glucans on gut microbiota and human health. J Nutr Biochem. 2018 Nov;61:101-110. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.06.010. Epub 2018 Aug 10. PMID: 30196242. [*]
Beta-glucans aided white blood cells and bolstered the immune response.
Frontiers in Immunology, 2020
Paris S, Chapat L, Pasin M, Lambiel M, Sharrock TE, Shukla R, Sigoillot-Claude C, Bonnet JM, Poulet H, Freyburger L, De Luca K. β-Glucan-Induced Trained Immunity in Dogs. Front Immunol. 2020 Oct 9;11:566893. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.566893. PMID: 33162983; PMCID: PMC7581789. [*]
Beta-glucans can help in obesity prevention and treatment.
BMC Veterinary Research, 2022
Ferreira CS, Vendramini THA, Amaral AR, et al. Metabolic variables of obese dogs with insulin resistance supplemented with yeast beta-glucan. BMC Vet Res. 2022;18(1):14. Published 2022 Jan 3. doi:10.1186/s12917-021-03106-2 [*]
Low antioxidant status in dogs is a marker of congestive heart failure.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2005
Freeman LM, Rush JE, Milbury PE, Blumberg JB. Antioxidant status and biomarkers of oxidative stress in dogs with congestive heart failure. J Vet Intern Med. 2005 Jul-Aug;19(4):537-41. doi: 10.1892/0891-6640(2005)19[537:asaboo]2.0.co;2. PMID: 16095171. [*]
Antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs.
Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2015
Sechi S, Chiavolelli F, Spissu N, et al. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results. J Vet Med. 2015;2015:412501. doi:10.1155/2015/412501 [*]
Increasing concentrations of alpha-lipoic acid induced a significant increase in the concentrations of intracellular glutathione, an important biomarker of the antioxidant system.
Anthony RM, MacLeay JM, Jewell DE, Brejda JJ, Gross KL. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Is an Effective Nutritive Antioxidant for Healthy Adult Dogs. Animals (Basel). 2021;11(2):274. Published 2021 Jan 22. doi:10.3390/ani11020274 [*]
Osteoarthritic dogs fed a diet high in omega-3 walked and played better compared to acontrol.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2010
Roush JK, Dodd CE, Fritsch DA, Allen TA, Jewell DE, Schoenherr WD, Richardson DC, Leventhal PS, Hahn KA. Multicenter veterinary practice assessment of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on osteoarthritis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010 Jan 1;236(1):59-66. doi: 10.2460/javma.236.1.59. Erratum in: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010 Jun 1;236(11):1191. PMID: 20043800. [*]
Almost half of all atopic dogs saw their pruritus controlled by a diet rich in omega-3s.
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 1997
Scott DW, Miller WH Jr, Reinhart GA, Mohammed HO, Bagladi MS. Effect of an omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid-containing commercial lamb and rice diet on pruritus in atopic dogs: results of a single-blinded study. Can J Vet Res. 1997;61(2):145-153. [*]
Omega-3 fed dogs saw symptoms of osteoarthritis decrease and improved mobility and general performance.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2013
Moreau M, Troncy E, Del Castillo JR, Bédard C, Gauvin D, Lussier B. Effects of feeding a high omega-3 fatty acids diet in dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2013 Oct;97(5):830-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01325.x. Epub 2012 Jul 14. PMID: 22805303. [*]
Omega-3 reduce the volumetric overload, and had antiarrhythmic effect in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease.
PLoS One, 2021
Nasciutti PR, Moraes AT, Santos TK, et al. Protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease stages B2 and C. PLoS One. 2021;16(7):e0254887. Published 2021 Jul 15. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0254887 [*]
Results of the study reported here support the hypothesis that a combination of omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, and zinc may improve some of the behavioral disorders.
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 2018
Rahimi Niyyat M, Azizzadeh M, Khoshnegah J. Effect of Supplementation With Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Magnesium, and Zinc on Canine Behavioral Disorders: Results of a Pilot Study. Top Companion Anim Med. 2018 Dec;33(4):150-155. doi: 10.1053/j.tcam.2018.08.006. Epub 2018 Aug 30. PMID: 30502867. [*]
Inulin is a prebiotic that enhances growth and controls pathogenic bacteria in livestock.
British Journal of Nutrition, 2002
Flickinger EA, Fahey GC Jr. Pet food and feed applications of inulin, oligofructose and other oligosaccharides. Br J Nutr. 2002 May;87 Suppl 2:S297-300. doi: 10.1079/BJNBJN/2002552. PMID: 12088533. [*]
Inulin increases beneficial microbiota and decreases harmful microbiota in mice.
PLoS One, 2019
Hoffman JD, Yanckello LM, Chlipala G, et al. Dietary inulin alters the gut microbiome, enhances systemic metabolism and reduces neuroinflammation in an APOE4 mouse model. PLoS One. 2019;14(8):e0221828. Published 2019 Aug 28. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0221828 [*]
Inulin augments gut health and improve livestock vitality.
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 2013
Samanta AK, Jayapal N, Senani S, Kolte AP, Sridhar M. Prebiotic inulin: Useful dietary adjuncts to manipulate the livestock gut microflora. Braz J Microbiol. 2013;44(1):1-14. Published 2013 May 7. doi:10.1590/S1517-83822013005000023 [*]
Inulin increased the number of beneficial bacteria in humans, and reduced the abundance of pathogenic bacteria.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 2020
Le Bastard Q, Chapelet G, Javaudin F, Lepelletier D, Batard E, Montassier E. The effects of inulin on gut microbial composition: a systematic review of evidence from human studies. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Mar;39(3):403-413. doi: 10.1007/s10096-019-03721-w. Epub 2019 Nov 9. PMID: 31707507. [*]
Verlinden A, Hesta M, Hermans JM, Janssens GP. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs. Br J Nutr. 2006 Nov;96(5):936-44. doi: 10.1017/bjn20061912. PMID: 17092385. [*]
Kelp may aid recovery of pancreatici islet cells secreting function and reduce blood glucose levels.
International Journal of Molecular Sciencies, 2012
Long SH, Yu ZQ, Shuai L, et al. The hypoglycemic effect of the kelp on diabetes mellitus model induced by alloxan in rats. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(3):3354-3365. doi:10.3390/ijms13033354 [*]
Kelp supplementation increases stimulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Endocrine Practice, 2003
Clark CD, Bassett B, Burge MR. Effects of kelp supplementation on thyroid function in euthyroid subjects. Endocr Pract. 2003 Sep-Oct;9(5):363-9. doi: 10.4158/EP.9.5.363. PMID: 14583417. [*]
Low to moderate carb diets in diabetic dogs improve glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels.
Research in Veterinary Science, 2012
Elliott KF, Rand JS, Fleeman LM, Morton JM, Litster AL, Biourge VC, Markwell PJ. A diet lower in digestible carbohydrate results in lower postprandial glucose concentrations compared with a traditional canine diabetes diet and an adult maintenance diet in healthy dogs. Res Vet Sci. 2012 Aug;93(1):288-95. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2011.07.032. Epub 2011 Sep 22. PMID: 21944832. [*]
Dietary restruction increased median life span and delayed the onset signs of chronic disease in dogs.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2002
Kealy RD, Lawler DF, Ballam JM, Mantz SL, Biery DN, Greeley EH, Lust G, Segre M, Smith GK, Stowe HD. Effects of diet restriction on life span and age-related changes in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 May 1;220(9):1315-20. doi: 10.2460/javma.2002.220.1315. PMID: 11991408. [*]
Low carb, high protein diet slowed glucose release, improved digestibility, and reduced intestinal fermentation in working dogs.
New Zealnad Veterinary Journal, 2009
Hill SR, Rutherfurd-Markwick KJ, Ravindran G, Ugarte CE, Thomas DG. The effects of the proportions of dietary macronutrients on the digestibility, post-prandial endocrine responses and large intestinal fermentation of carbohydrate in working dogs. N Z Vet J. 2009 Dec;57(6):313-8. doi: 10.1080/00480169.2009.64718. PMID: 19966890. [*]
Low, high fat and protein diets best support working dogs ad maintain thyroid health.
Chiofalo B, Fazio E, Cucinotta S, Cravana C. Thyroid and Lipid Status in Guide Dogs During Training: Effects of Dietary Protein and Fat Content. Animals (Basel). 2019;9(9):597. Published 2019 Aug 23. doi:10.3390/ani9090597 [*]
Low carb, high protein diet improves weight loss in obese dogs.
Journal of Nutrition, 2002
Diez M, Nguyen P, Jeusette I, Devois C, Istasse L, Biourge V. Weight loss in obese dogs: evaluation of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. J Nutr. 2002 Jun;132(6 Suppl 2):1685S-7S. doi: 10.1093/jn/132.6.1685S. PMID: 12042493. [*]
Working dogs fed an ultra-low carb diet saw lower intestitial glucose concentrations - though activity levels decreased.
PLoS One, 2021
Gal A, Cuttance W, Cave N, Lopez-Villalobos N, Herndon A, Giles J, Burchell R. Less is more? Ultra-low carbohydrate diet and working dogs' performance. PLoS One. 2021 Dec 23;16(12):e0261506. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0261506. PMID: 34941910; PMCID: PMC8699952. [*]
The high protein low carb diet-fed dogs showed greater abundances of Firmicutes but fewer numbers of Bacteroidetes than other dogs - potential weight loss strategy.
Li Q, Lauber CL, Czarnecki-Maulden G, Pan Y, Hannah SS. Effects of the Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Ratio on Gut Microbiomes in Dogs of Different Body Conditions. mBio. 2017 Jan 24;8(1):e01703-16. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01703-16. PMID: 28119466; PMCID: PMC5263242. [*]
The HPLC diet is a safe and effective option for medically supervised weight loss in severely obese adolescents.
Journal of Pediatrics, 2010
Krebs NF, Gao D, Gralla J, Collins JS, Johnson SL. Efficacy and safety of a high protein, low carbohydrate diet for weight loss in severely obese adolescents. J Pediatr. 2010 Aug;157(2):252-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.02.010. Epub 2010 Mar 20. PMID: 20304413; PMCID: PMC2892194. [*]
Review: low fats reduce the risk of cancer, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease in people.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2015
Hooper L, Martin N, Abdelhamid A, Davey Smith G. Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jun 10;(6):CD011737. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011737. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 May 19;5:CD011737. PMID: 26068959. [*]
Processed commercial dog foods met only minimum mutritional requirements, not optimum levels.
Veterinary Research Communications, 2021
Kazimierska K, Biel W, Witkowicz R, Karakulska J, Stachurska X. Evaluation of nutritional value and microbiological safety in commercial dog food. Vet Res Commun. 2021;45(2-3):111-128. doi:10.1007/s11259-021-09791-6 [*]
Gut microbiota more diverse and abundant in natural rather than commercial dog food.
Gut Pathogens, 2017
Kim J, An JU, Kim W, Lee S, Cho S. Differences in the gut microbiota of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) fed a natural diet or a commercial feed revealed by the Illumina MiSeq platform. Gut Pathog. 2017;9:68. Published 2017 Nov 21. doi:10.1186/s13099-017-0218-5 [*]
Dogs adjust their food preferences depend on their characteristics.
Alegría-Morán RA, Guzmán-Pino SA, Egaña JI, Muñoz C, Figueroa J. Food Preferences in Dogs: Effect of Dietary Composition and Intrinsic Variables on Diet Selection. Animals (Basel). 2019;9(5):219. Published 2019 May 6. doi:10.3390/ani9050219 [*]
Commercial pet food does not meet the needs of every pet.
Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice, 2021
Sanderson SL. Pros and Cons of Commercial Pet Foods (Including Grain/Grain Free) for Dogs and Cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2021 May;51(3):529-550. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2021.01.009. PMID: 33773644. [*]
Of the 27 foods, 25 met or exceeded the AAFCO nutrient recommendations. Only 9 foods met all nutrient content claims listed in their guaranteed analyses.
Canadian Veterinary Journal, 2018
Burdett SW, Mansilla WD, Shoveller AK. Many Canadian dog and cat foods fail to comply with the guaranteed analyses reported on packages. Can Vet J. 2018 Nov;59(11):1181-1186. PMID: 30410174; PMCID: PMC6190176. [*]
Functional foods modify gastrointestinal physiology, promote changes in biochemical parameters, improve brain functions and may reduce or minimize the risk of developing specific pathologies.
Research in Veterinary Science, 2017
Di Cerbo A, Morales-Medina JC, Palmieri B, Pezzuto F, Cocco R, Flores G, Iannitti T. Functional foods in pet nutrition: Focus on dogs and cats. Res Vet Sci. 2017 Jun;112:161-166. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.03.020. Epub 2017 Apr 7. PMID: 28433933. [*]
The inclusion of whole food ingredients in natural pet foods as opposed to fractionated ingredients may result in higher nutrient concentrations, including phytonutrients. Additionally, the processing of commercial pet food can impact digestibility, nutrient bioavailability, and safety, which are particularly important considerations with new product formats in the natural pet food category.
Journal of Animal Science, 2014
Buff PR, Carter RA, Bauer JE, Kersey JH. Natural pet food: a review of natural diets and their impact on canine and feline physiology. J Anim Sci. 2014 Sep;92(9):3781-91. doi: 10.2527/jas.2014-7789. Epub 2014 Jul 8. PMID: 25006071. [*]
Eighteen tested dog foods (60%) did not meet at least one recommendation of nutritional guidelines. Four dog foods exceeded the legal limit of Fe and five foods exceeded the legal limit of Zn; in one of them, Zn level was almost twice higher.
Kazimierska K, Biel W, Witkowicz R. Mineral Composition of Cereal and Cereal-Free Dry Dog Foods versus Nutritional Guidelines. Molecules. 2020 Nov 6;25(21):5173. doi: 10.3390/molecules25215173. PMID: 33172044; PMCID: PMC7664208. [*]
Human-grade pet foods are highly digestible and suitable for canine nutrition.
Translational Animal Science, 2019
Oba PM, Utterback PL, Parsons CM, Swanson KS. True nutrient and amino acid digestibility of dog foods made with human-grade ingredients using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Transl Anim Sci. 2019 Dec 6;4(1):442-451. doi: 10.1093/tas/txz175. PMID: 32705002; PMCID: PMC6994059. [*]
Peas and legums had the highest concentrations of 3P/FDA - a compound associated with canine dilated cardiomyopathy.
Scientific Reports, 2021
Smith CE, Parnell LD, Lai CQ, Rush JE, Freeman LM. Investigation of diets associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs using foodomics analysis. Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 5;11(1):15881. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-94464-2. PMID: 34354102; PMCID: PMC8342479. [*]
Food and Drug Administration warned about a possible relationship between dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs and the consumption of dog food formulated with potatoes and pulse ingredients.
Journal of Animal Science, 2019
Mansilla WD, Marinangeli CPF, Ekenstedt KJ, et al. Special topic: The association between pulse ingredients and canine dilated cardiomyopathy: addressing the knowledge gaps before establishing causation. J Anim Sci. 2019;97(3):983-997. doi:10.1093/jas/sky488 [*]
This systematic review supports inverse associations between eating nuts and incident IHD and diabetes and eating legumes and incident IHD.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014
Afshin A, Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Mozaffarian D. Consumption of nuts and legumes and risk of incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul;100(1):278-88. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.076901. Epub 2014 Jun 4. PMID: 24898241; PMCID: PMC4144102. [*]
All foods analyzed had one or more nutrients below the recommended levels and some presented zinc and copper excess, therefore, these foods should not be recommended for dogs and cats.
PLoS One, 2020
Zafalon RVA, Risolia LW, Vendramini THA, et al. Nutritional inadequacies in commercial vegan foods for dogs and cats. PLoS One. 2020;15(1):e0227046. Published 2020 Jan 17. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0227046 [*]
Gut microbiome is critical to a the immune systema and systemic health.
Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 2020
Pilla R, Suchodolski JS. The Role of the Canine Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in Health and Gastrointestinal Disease. Front Vet Sci. 2020 Jan 14;6:498. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00498. PMID: 31993446; PMCID: PMC6971114. [*]
Probiotics and prebiotics can improve microbial diversity and normalise metabolism in diseased dogs.
The Veterinary Clinical of North America. Small Animal Practice, 2021
Pilla R, Suchodolski JS. The Gut Microbiome of Dogs and Cats, and the Influence of Diet. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2021 May;51(3):605-621. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Feb 27. PMID: 33653538. [*]
The skin microbiome has a lower species richness in allergic dogs than healthy dogs.
PLoS One, 2014
Rodrigues Hoffmann A, Patterson AP, Diesel A, Lawhon SD, Ly HJ, Elkins Stephenson C, Mansell J, Steiner JM, Dowd SE, Olivry T, Suchodolski JS. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 8;9(1):e83197. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083197. PMID: 24421875; PMCID: PMC3885435. [*]
Probiotics reduce levels of IgE - a key indicator of allergy found in dogs.
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2008
Walker WA. Mechanisms of action of probiotics. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 1;46 Suppl 2:S87-91; discussion S144-51. doi: 10.1086/523335. PMID: 18181730. [*]
Early exposure to probiotics deceased allergen-specific IgE.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 2012
Marsella R, Santoro D, Ahrens K. Early exposure to probiotics in a canine model of atopic dermatitis has long-term clinical and immunological effects. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012 Apr 15;146(2):185-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.02.013. Epub 2012 Mar 1. PMID: 22436376. [*]
Beagle puppies exposure to probiotics had significantly less allergic markers.
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2009
Marsella R. Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG for the prevention of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2009 Jun;70(6):735-40. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.70.6.735. PMID: 19496662. [*]
Lactobacillus and Enterococcus are theorised to alter the immune cell response, stopping the allergic overreaction.
Veterinary Sciences, 2020
Marchegiani A, Fruganti A, Spaterna A, Dalle Vedove E, Bachetti B, Massimini M, Di Pierro F, Gavazza A, Cerquetella M. Impact of Nutritional Supplementation on Canine Dermatological Disorders. Vet Sci. 2020 Apr 3;7(2):38. doi: 10.3390/vetsci7020038. PMID: 32260299; PMCID: PMC7355824. [*]
Healthy dogs did not show any negative GI or immune system effects form probiotic supplementation
Grześkowiak Ł, Endo A, Beasley S, Salminen S. Microbiota and probiotics in canine and feline welfare. Anaerobe. 2015;34:14-23. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.04.002 [*]
Decrease in GI dysbiosis and diarrhea in dogs receiving probiotics.
Vet Record Open, 2021
Jugan, Maria C et al. “Preliminary evaluation of probiotic effects on gastrointestinal signs in dogs with multicentric lymphoma undergoing multi-agent chemotherapy: A randomised, placebo-controlled study.” Veterinary record open vol. 8,1 e2. 29 Mar. 2021, doi:10.1002/vro2.2 [*]
GI microbiota critical for health and physiological functioning.
Open Veterinary Journal, 2019
Mondo E, Marliani G, Accorsi PA, Cocchi M, Di Leone A. Role of gut microbiota in dog and cat's health and diseases. Open Vet J. 2019;9(3):253-258. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i3.10 [*]
Probiotic treatments in elderly dogs shifted gut bacteria towards a younger looking composition.
Frontiers in Immunology, 2019
Xu H, Huang W, Hou Q, et al. Oral Administration of Compound Probiotics Improved Canine Feed Intake, Weight Gain, Immunity and Intestinal Microbiota. Front Immunol. 2019;10:666. Published 2019 Apr 2. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.00666 [*]
Probiotics and diet help minimise GI disease.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2019
Jensen AP, Bjørnvad CR. Clinical effect of probiotics in prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal disease in dogs: A systematic review. J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(5):1849-1864. doi:10.1111/jvim.15554 [*]
Lactobacillus can enhance intestinal health and improve immune function in dogs.
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2004
Baillon ML, Marshall-Jones ZV, Butterwick RF. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain DSM13241 in healthy adult dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2004 Mar;65(3):338-43. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.2004.65.338. PMID: 15027683. [*]
Byproducts of probiotic bacteria in crease the visbility and decreased oxidative stress in mouse and dog cells.
Frontiers in Microbiology, 2021
Jang HJ, Son S, Kim JA, et al. Characterization and Functional Test of Canine Probiotics. Front Microbiol. 2021;12:625562. Published 2021 Mar 8. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.625562 [*]
Lactobacillus strain amongst the best probiotics for dogs.
Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2019
Coman MM, Verdenelli MC, Cecchini C, Belà B, Gramenzi A, Orpianesi C, Cresci A, Silvi S. Probiotic characterization of Lactobacillus isolates from canine faeces. J Appl Microbiol. 2019 Apr;126(4):1245-1256. doi: 10.1111/jam.14197. Epub 2019 Feb 18. PMID: 30614169. [*]
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2013
Hutchins RG, Bailey CS, Jacob ME, Harris TL, Wood MW, Saker KE, Vaden SL. The effect of an oral probiotic containing lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, and bacillus species on the vaginal microbiota of spayed female dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2013 Nov-Dec;27(6):1368-71. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12174. Epub 2013 Aug 28. PMID: 24033665. [*]
Probiotics led to a lower incidence in diarrhea and a change in gut microbial community.
Animal Microbiome, 2021
Tanprasertsuk J, Jha AR, Shmalberg J, Jones RB, Perry LM, Maughan H, Honaker RW. The microbiota of healthy dogs demonstrates individualized responses to synbiotic supplementation in a randomized controlled trial. Anim Microbiome. 2021 May 10;3(1):36. doi: 10.1186/s42523-021-00098-0. PMID: 33971985; PMCID: PMC8111948. [*]
Probiotic used in livestock improved gut health and microbiota.
Beneficial Microbes, 2010
Chaucheyras-Durand F, Durand H. Probiotics in animal nutrition and health. Benef Microbes. 2010 Mar;1(1):3-9. doi: 10.3920/BM2008.1002. PMID: 21840795. [*]
Aged male animals eating probiotics exhibited increased subcuticular folliculogenesis, yielding luxuriant fur only in probiotic-fed subjects. Female animals displayed probiotic-induced hyperacidity coinciding with shinier hair.
PLoS One, 2013
Levkovich T, Poutahidis T, Smillie C, et al. Probiotic bacteria induce a 'glow of health'. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53867. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053867 [*]
Products claiming "probiotics" often see no relevant bacterial growth - inaccurate labels relative to actual contents.
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 2003
Weese JS, Arroyo L. Bacteriological evaluation of dog and cat diets that claim to contain probiotics. Can Vet J. 2003;44(3):212-216. [*]
All dogs clinically improved after probiotic treatment, but cytokine patterns were not associated with the clinical features irrespective of the dietary supplementation.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2006
Sauter SN, Benyacoub J, Allenspach K, Gaschen F, Ontsouka E, Reuteler G, Cavadini C, Knorr R, Blum JW. Effects of probiotic bacteria in dogs with food responsive diarrhoea treated with an elimination diet. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2006 Aug;90(7-8):269-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2005.00595.x. PMID: 16867072. [*]
Supplementation of L acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) significantly improved the nutritional status and faecal parameters of dogs.
The Veterinary Record, 2020
Marelli SP, Fusi E, Giardini A, et al. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) on the nutritional and health status of boxer dogs. Vet Rec. 2020;187(4):e28. doi:10.1136/vr.105434 [*]
Review: Probiotic administration improved the clinical symptoms, histological alterations, and mucus production in most of the evaluated animal studies.
Plaza-Díaz J, Ruiz-Ojeda FJ, Vilchez-Padial LM, Gil A. Evidence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Intestinal Chronic Diseases. Nutrients. 2017;9(6):555. Published 2017 May 28. doi:10.3390/nu9060555 [*]
Review: Several probiotic species are widely considered beneficial. Safety concerns prevent Enterococcus from being included - though there is potential for development.
Frontiers in Microbiology, 2018
Hanchi H, Mottawea W, Sebei K, Hammami R. The Genus Enterococcus: Between Probiotic Potential and Safety Concerns-An Update. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:1791. Published 2018 Aug 3. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.01791 [*]
Administration of probiotic Lactobacillu sakei probio-65 reduced disease severity for canine atopic dermatitis.
Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 2015
Kim H, Rather IA, Kim H, Kim S, Kim T, Jang J, Seo J, Lim J, Park YH. A Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled-Trial of a Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus sakei Probio-65 for the Prevention of Canine Atopic Dermatitis. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015 Nov;25(11):1966-9. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1506.06065. PMID: 26282691. [*]
Novel probiotics are being developed for use in pet nutrition programs.
Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins, 2017
Kumar S, Pattanaik AK, Sharma S, Jadhav SE, Dutta N, Kumar A. Probiotic Potential of a Lactobacillus Bacterium of Canine Faecal-Origin and Its Impact on Select Gut Health Indices and Immune Response of Dogs. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2017 Sep;9(3):262-277. doi: 10.1007/s12602-017-9256-z. PMID: 28188477. [*]
Pumpkin High antioxidants
Pumpkins are a potent source of antioxidants.
Food Chemistry, 2012
Oloyede FM, Agbaje GO, Obuotor EM, Obisesan IO. Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer. Food Chem. 2012 Nov 15;135(2):460-3. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.124. Epub 2012 Apr 30. PMID: 22868114. [*]
Pumpkin seeds contain all essential amino acids except lysine and threonine.
Food Chemistry, 2021
Vinayashree S, Vasu P. Biochemical, nutritional and functional properties of protein isolate and fractions from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata var. Kashi Harit) seeds. Food Chem. 2021 Mar 15;340:128177. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128177. Epub 2020 Sep 24. PMID: 33002826. [*]
Pumpkin contains several phyto-constituents belonging to the categories of alkaloids, flavonoids, and palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Various important medicinal properties including anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and others have been well documented.
Nutrition Research Reviews, 2010
Yadav M, Jain S, Tomar R, Prasad GB, Yadav H. Medicinal and biological potential of pumpkin: an updated review. Nutr Res Rev. 2010 Dec;23(2):184-90. doi: 10.1017/S0954422410000107. PMID: 21110905. [*]
Pumpkin seed oil lowers blood pressure and is cardioprotective.
Journal of Medical Food, 2012
El-Mosallamy AE, Sleem AA, Abdel-Salam OM, Shaffie N, Kenawy SA. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil. J Med Food. 2012 Feb;15(2):180-9. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2010.0299. Epub 2011 Nov 14. PMID: 22082068. [*]
Pumpkin could enhance animal health and vitality in livestock.
Valdez-Arjona LP, Ramírez-Mella M. Pumpkin Waste as Livestock Feed: Impact on Nutrition and Animal Health and on Quality of Meat, Milk, and Egg. Animals (Basel). 2019 Oct 8;9(10):769. doi: 10.3390/ani9100769. PMID: 31597395; PMCID: PMC6826842. [*]
Pumpkin seed extract is reported to be useful for immunomodulation, reproductive health, therapeutics over a wide range of disease conditions and stimulates metabolism of accumulated fats.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2018
Achilonu MC, Nwafor IC, Umesiobi DO, Sedibe MM. Biochemical proximates of pumpkin (Cucurbitaeae spp.) and their beneficial effects on the general well-being of poultry species. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2018 Feb;102(1):5-16. doi: 10.1111/jpn.12654. Epub 2017 Feb 3. PMID: 28158900. [*]
Pumpkin seed extracts may be used to control of Gastrointestinal (G.I.) nematode infections.
International Journal of Molecular Sciencies, 2016
Grzybek M, Kukula-Koch W, Strachecka A, et al. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity and Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Extracts-In Vitro and in Vivo Studies. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(9):1456. Published 2016 Sep 1. doi:10.3390/ijms17091456 [*]
Pumpkins recommended alternative to sugar, with high total phenolics and moderate antioxidant activity.
Journal of Medicinal Food, 2007
Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Kim YC, Shetty K. Health benefits of traditional corn, beans, and pumpkin: in vitro studies for hyperglycemia and hypertension management. J Med Food. 2007 Jun;10(2):266-75. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2006.234. PMID: 17651062. [*]
Dietary seaweed contain numerous components, including ACE inhibitory peptides, soluble dietary fibers (eg, fucoidan, porphyran), omega-3 fatty acids, fucoxanthin, fucosterol, vitamins D3 and B12, and phlorotannins. These components exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral effects directly as well as indirectly through prebiotic effects.
Nutrition Reviews, 2020
Tamama K. Potential benefits of dietary seaweeds as protection against COVID-19. Nutr Rev. 2021;79(7):814-823. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuaa126 [*]
Oligo fucoidan derived by from oceanic brown seaweed improve quality of life in dogs being treated with chemotherapy for cancer.
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 2022
Post GS, Lustgarten J. The Use of Oligo Fucoidan in Cancer Bearing Dogs Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Double-Blinded Study. Top Companion Anim Med. 2022 Jan-Feb;46:100616. doi: 10.1016/j.tcam.2021.100616. Epub 2021 Dec 2. PMID: 34864255. [*]
Seaweeds' indigestible polysaccharides have strong prebiotic properties.
Pinna C, Vecchiato CG, Grandi M, Stefanelli C, Zannoni A, Biagi G. Seaweed Supplementation Failed to Affect Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome as Well as Fecal IgA and Apparent Nutrient Digestibility in Adult Dogs. Animals (Basel). 2021;11(8):2234. Published 2021 Jul 29. doi:10.3390/ani11082234 [*]
Source of carbohydrates affected blood MHCH and platelets - no effect in taurine levels.
Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 2021
Gizzarelli M, Calabrò S, Vastolo A, Molinaro G, Balestrino I, Cutrignelli MI. Clinical Findings in Healthy Dogs Fed With Diets Characterized by Different Carbohydrates Sources. Front Vet Sci. 2021;8:667318. Published 2021 Apr 22. doi:10.3389/fvets.2021.667318 [*]
Taurine essential for photoreceptor survival in the eye.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 2013
Rosolen SG, Neveux N, Sahel JA, Picaud S, Froger N. Evaluation of the taurine concentrations in dog plasma and aqueous humour: a pilot study. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;775:145-54. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6130-2_12. PMID: 23392931. [*]
Taurine supplementation protects against pathologies associated with mitochondrial defects, such as aging, mitochondrial diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders.
Jong CJ, Sandal P, Schaffer SW. The Role of Taurine in Mitochondria Health: More Than Just an Antioxidant. Molecules. 2021;26(16):4913. Published 2021 Aug 13. doi:10.3390/molecules26164913 [*]
Taurine deficiency is a possible caused of diet-associated dilated cardiomyopathy.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2022
Freeman L, Rush J, Adin D, et al. Prospective study of dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs eating nontraditional or traditional diets and in dogs with subclinical cardiac abnormalities. J Vet Intern Med. 2022;36(2):451-463. doi:10.1111/jvim.16397 [*]
Different carbohydrate sources do not affect taurine status in dogs.
Journal of Animal Science, 2020
Pezzali JG, Acuff HL, Henry W, Alexander C, Swanson KS, Aldrich CG. Effects of different carbohydrate sources on taurine status in healthy Beagle dogs. J Anim Sci. 2020;98(2):skaa010. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa010 [*]
Taurine insufficiency is greater in bigger dogs due to differences in taurine biosynthesis rate.
Journal of Nutrition, 2007
Ko KS, Backus RC, Berg JR, Lame MW, Rogers QR. Differences in taurine synthesis rate among dogs relate to differences in their maintenance energy requirement. J Nutr. 2007 May;137(5):1171-5. doi: 10.1093/jn/137.5.1171. PMID: 17449577. [*]
Low taurine and DCM may be specifically associated with Cocker Spaniels or Golden Retrievers.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 1995
Kramer GA, Kittleson MD, Fox PR, Lewis J, Pion PD. Plasma taurine concentrations in normal dogs and in dogs with heart disease. J Vet Intern Med. 1995 Jul-Aug;9(4):253-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.1995.tb01076.x. PMID: 8523322. [*]
Taurine deficiencies can cause serious issues; however, green lentils do not cause a lower blood concentration of taurine.
Journal of Animal Science, 2021
Reilly LM, He F, Clark L, de Godoy MRC. Longitudinal assessment of taurine and amino acid concentrations in dogs fed a green lentil diet. J Anim Sci. 2021 Nov 1;99(11):skab315. doi: 10.1093/jas/skab315. PMID: 34747447; PMCID: PMC8763241. [*]
Puppies receiving high-DHA food were better at task learning, visual contrast discrimination, and early psychomotor performance (salmon oil is high in DHA).
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2012
Zicker SC, Jewell DE, Yamka RM, Milgram NW. Evaluation of cognitive learning, memory, psychomotor, immunologic, and retinal functions in healthy puppies fed foods fortified with docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil from 8 to 52 weeks of age. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012 Sep 1;241(5):583-94. doi: 10.2460/javma.241.5.583. PMID: 22916855. [*]
Fish oil high in EPA and DHA reduced lameness and slowed the progression of ostearthritis in dogs.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2010
Fritsch D, Allen TA, Dodd CE, Jewell DE, Sixby KA, Leventhal PS, Hahn KA. Dose-titration effects of fish oil in osteoarthritic dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2010 Sep-Oct;24(5):1020-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0572.x. Epub 2010 Aug 12. Erratum in: J Vet Intern Med. 2011 Jan-Feb;25(1):167. PMID: 20707845. [*]
Fish oil omega-3 fattty acids improved weight-bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2010
Roush JK, Cross AR, Renberg WC, Dodd CE, Sixby KA, Fritsch DA, Allen TA, Jewell DE, Richardson DC, Leventhal PS, Hahn KA. Evaluation of the effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010 Jan 1;236(1):67-73. doi: 10.2460/javma.236.1.67. PMID: 20043801. [*]
Fish oil equally effective as cyclosporine in trated symmetrical onchyomadesis.
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 2014
Ziener ML, Nødtvedt A. A treatment study of canine symmetrical onychomadesis (symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy) comparing fish oil and cyclosporine supplementation in addition to a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Acta Vet Scand. 2014;56(1):66. Published 2014 Oct 4. doi:10.1186/s13028-014-0066-y [*]
Long-term fish oil supplementation increases semen quality and testosterone concentrations in dogs.
International Journal of Fertility and Sterility, 2016
Risso A, Pellegrino FJ, Relling AE, Corrada Y. Effect of Long-Term Fish Oil Supplementation on Semen Quality and Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Male Dogs. Int J Fertil Steril. 2016;10(2):223-231. doi:10.22074/ijfs.2016.4913 [*]
Fish oil supplementation decreased IL-1 concentrations and improved cachexia in canine heart failure - reductions in IL-1 predicted survival.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 1998
Freeman LM, Rush JE, Kehayias JJ, Ross JN Jr, Meydani SN, Brown DJ, Dolnikowski GG, Marmor BN, White ME, Dinarello CA, Roubenoff R. Nutritional alterations and the effect of fish oil supplementation in dogs with heart failure. J Vet Intern Med. 1998 Nov-Dec;12(6):440-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.1998.tb02148.x. PMID: 9857337. [*]
Fish oil supplementation slightly improve the physiological response of dogs to exercise during training.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2019
Pellegrino FJ, Risso A, Relling AE, Corrada Y. Physical response of dogs supplemented with fish oil during a treadmill training programme. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2019 Mar;103(2):653-660. doi: 10.1111/jpn.13033. Epub 2018 Dec 5. PMID: 30520172. [*]
Dogs receiving salmon oil had higher levels of vitamin D than controls.
BMC Research Notes, 2015
Sharp CR, Selting KA, Ringold R. The effect of diet on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs. BMC Res Notes. 2015 Sep 15;8:442. doi: 10.1186/s13104-015-1360-0. PMID: 26374201; PMCID: PMC4570747. [*]
Fish oil supplementation for six weeks reduces arrhythmias in Boxers with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2007
Smith CE, Freeman LM, Rush JE, Cunningham SM, Biourge V. Omega-3 fatty acids in Boxer dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med. 2007 Mar-Apr;21(2):265-73. doi: 10.1892/0891-6640(2007)21[265:ofaibd]2.0.co;2. PMID: 17427387. [*]