0 Recipe quiz
🇺🇸 4TH OF JULY SALE 🇺🇸 Get FREE SHIPPING on all orders sitewide!Shop now
Shop Ingredients 250 Clinical Studies DIY Recipes What We Believe Petition

Science-Backed Dog Food for a Longer Expected Lifespan

Lifespan
Science.

Every single one of our ingredients were picked specifically to provide important nutrients and health benefits according to modern research.

Below we have summarized 250 clinical studies scientifically supporting the ingredients we use in Yumwoof Natural Pet Food products. Best viewed on desktop.

Ingredient / Macro #1 Ingredient / Macro #2 Ingredient / Macro #3 Study Title Journal Name Year of Publication Study Link Citation Description
Anti-inflammatory Chia seeds Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties of Thai Perilla frutescence fruit oil in animals Bioscience Reports 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823181/ Paradee N, Koonyosying P, Kusirisin W, et al. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties of Thai Perilla frutescence fruit oil in animals. Biosci Rep. 2021;41(1):BSR20203166. doi:10.1042/BSR20203166 Alpha-linolenic acid displayed analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties are part of a fruit oil.
Anti-inflammatory Carrots Therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects of luteolin on endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5053947/ Kanai K, Nagata S, Hatta T, et al. Therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects of luteolin on endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats. J Vet Med Sci. 2016;78(8):1381-1384. doi:10.1292/jvms.16-0196 Luteeolin (contained in carrots) displayed potent anti-inflammatory properties.
Apple cider vinegar Authenticating apple cider vinegar's home remedy claims: antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral properties and cytotoxicity aspect Natural Product Research 2019 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29224370/ Gopal J, Anthonydhason V, Muthu M, Gansukh E, Jung S, Chul S, Iyyakkannu S. Authenticating apple cider vinegar's home remedy claims: antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral properties and cytotoxicity aspect. Nat Prod Res. 2019 Mar;33(6):906-910. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1413567. Epub 2017 Dec 11. PMID: 29224370. Apple cider vinegar has antimicrobial/antioxidant properties.
Apple cider vinegar Apple Cider Vinegar Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Reduces the Risk of Obesity in High-Fat-Fed Male Wistar Rats Journal of Medicinal Food 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29091513/ Halima BH, Sonia G, Sarra K, Houda BJ, Fethi BS, Abdallah A. Apple Cider Vinegar Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Reduces the Risk of Obesity in High-Fat-Fed Male Wistar Rats. J Med Food. 2018 Jan;21(1):70-80. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2017.0039. Epub 2017 Nov 1. PMID: 29091513. ACV beneficial for suppression of obesity-induxed oxidative stress and reduce risk of obesity-associated diseases by preventing atherogenic risk.
Apple cider vinegar Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study BMC Gastroenterology 2007 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2245945/ Hlebowicz J, Darwiche G, Björgell O, Almér LO. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2007;7:46. Published 2007 Dec 20. doi:10.1186/1471-230X-7-46 ACV reduces gastric emptying rate, aiding diabetic blood sugar levels.
Apple cider vinegar Antibacterial apple cider vinegar eradicates methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and resistant Escherichia coli Scientific Reports 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33473148/ Yagnik D, Ward M, Shah AJ. Antibacterial apple cider vinegar eradicates methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and resistant Escherichia coli. Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 20;11(1):1854. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-78407-x. PMID: 33473148; PMCID: PMC7817673. ACV has a powerful antimicrobial effect against MRSA and resistant E. coli.
Apple cider vinegar The effect of apple cider vinegar on lipid profiles and glycemic parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243436/ Hadi A, Pourmasoumi M, Najafgholizadeh A, Clark CCT, Esmaillzadeh A. The effect of apple cider vinegar on lipid profiles and glycemic parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2021;21(1):179. Published 2021 Jun 29. doi:10.1186/s12906-021-03351-w ACV had a significant favourable effect on fasting plasma glucose and blood lipid levels.
Apple cider vinegar Beneficial Effects of Apple Vinegar on Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in Hypercaloric-Fed Rats Journal of Diabetes Research 2020 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374219/ Ousaaid D, Laaroussi H, Bakour M, et al. Beneficial Effects of Apple Vinegar on Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in Hypercaloric-Fed Rats. J Diabetes Res. 2020;2020:9284987. Published 2020 Jul 10. doi:10.1155/2020/9284987 ACV is highly beneficial in metabolic disorders (e.g., obesity or type II diabetes) caused by high-caloric food.
Apple cider vinegar Safety and side effects of apple vinegar intake and its effect on metabolic parameters and body weight: a systematic review European Journal of Nutrition 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32170375/ Launholt TL, Kristiansen CB, Hjorth P. Safety and side effects of apple vinegar intake and its effect on metabolic parameters and body weight: a systematic review. Eur J Nutr. 2020 Sep;59(6):2273-2289. doi: 10.1007/s00394-020-02214-3. Epub 2020 Mar 13. PMID: 32170375. Review: ACV side effects are low to negligible. It is safe for consumption.
Beef liver Fresh chicken Fresh beef The role of coenzyme Q10 in the pathophysiology and therapy of experimental congestive heart failure in the dog Journal of Cardiac Failure 2000 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10997750/ Harker-Murray AK, Tajik AJ, Ishikura F, Meyer D, Burnett JC, Redfield MM. The role of coenzyme Q10 in the pathophysiology and therapy of experimental congestive heart failure in the dog. J Card Fail. 2000 Sep;6(3):233-42. doi: 10.1054/jcaf.2000.8839. PMID: 10997750. Low coenzyme Q10 (high in beef and chicken liver) reduced heart failure's effects.
Beef liver Nutritional Characteristics and Active Components in Liver from Wagyu×Qinchuan Cattle Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources 2014 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4597842/ Li RR, Yu QL, Han L, Cao H. Nutritional Characteristics and Active Components in Liver from Wagyu×Qinchuan Cattle. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 2014;34(2):214-220. doi:10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.214 Overviw of bef liver composition - rich source of amino acids (more nutritious than muscle tissue).
Beef liver A study of experimental anemia in dogs: The action of beef liver and iron salts on hemoglobin regeneration Journal of Clinical Investigation 1927 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16693780/ Riecker HH. A STUDY OF EXPERIMENTAL ANEMIA IN DOGS: THE ACTION OF BEEF LIVER AND IRON SALTS ON HEMOGLOBIN REGENERATION. J Clin Invest. 1927 Dec;5(1):141-60. doi: 10.1172/JCI100146. PMID: 16693780; PMCID: PMC434702. Beef liver improved hemoglobin production in dogs.
Beef liver Level of selected nutrients in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.) International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3417664/ Hassan AA, Sandanger TM, Brustad M. Level of selected nutrients in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.). Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:17997. Published 2012 Mar 19. doi:10.3402/ijch.v71i0.17997 Liver is a source of vitamin A, all B vitamins, vitamin C, iron, selenium, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Blueberries A mixed grape and blueberry extract is safe for dogs to consume BMC Veterinary Research 2016 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27487916/ Martineau AS, Leray V, Lepoudere A, Blanchard G, Bensalem J, Gaudout D, Ouguerram K, Nguyen P; Neurophenols Consortium. A mixed grape and blueberry extract is safe for dogs to consume. BMC Vet Res. 2016 Aug 3;12(1):162. doi: 10.1186/s12917-016-0786-5. PMID: 27487916; PMCID: PMC4973095. Blueberry and grape extract did not affect renal or hepatic function.
Blueberries Effects of dietary supplementation with a mixed blueberry and grape extract on working memory in aged beagle dogs Journal of Nutritional Science 2017 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29152239/ Fragua V, Lepoudère A, Leray V, Baron C, Araujo JA, Nguyen P, Milgram NW. Effects of dietary supplementation with a mixed blueberry and grape extract on working memory in aged beagle dogs. J Nutr Sci. 2017 Jul 12;6:e35. doi: 10.1017/jns.2017.33. PMID: 29152239; PMCID: PMC5672304. Blueberry and grape extract led to cognitive improvement in dogs, suggesting a benefit to working memory.
Blueberries High antioxidants A Blueberry-Enriched Diet Improves Renal Function and Reduces Oxidative Stress in Metabolic Syndrome Animals: Potential Mechanism of TLR4-MAPK Signaling Pathway PLoS One 2014 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4221362/ Nair AR, Elks CM, Vila J, Del Piero F, Paulsen DB, Francis J. A blueberry-enriched diet improves renal function and reduces oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome animals: potential mechanism of TLR4-MAPK signaling pathway. PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e111976. Published 2014 Nov 5. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111976 Blueberries protect against renal structural injury and dysfunction.
Blueberries High antioxidants Anti-inflammatory Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Blueberry Anthocyanins on High Glucose-Induced Human Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cells Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5842687/ Huang W, Yan Z, Li D, Ma Y, Zhou J, Sui Z. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Blueberry Anthocyanins on High Glucose-Induced Human Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:1862462. Published 2018 Feb 22. doi:10.1155/2018/1862462 Blueberries contain anthocyanins which benefit and protect eye health via anti-oxidantant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
Blueberries Blueberries and cardiovascular disease prevention Food & Function 2019 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31776541/ Wood E , Hein S , Heiss C , Williams C , Rodriguez-Mateos A . Blueberries and cardiovascular disease prevention. Food Funct. 2019 Dec 11;10(12):7621-7633. doi: 10.1039/c9fo02291k. PMID: 31776541. Blueberries rich in polyphenols (incuding anthocyanins) - improve vascular function.
Blueberries High antioxidants Total antioxidant power in sled dogs supplemented with blueberries and the comparison of blood parameters associated with exercise Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 2006 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16520073/ Dunlap KL, Reynolds AJ, Duffy LK. Total antioxidant power in sled dogs supplemented with blueberries and the comparison of blood parameters associated with exercise. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006 Apr;143(4):429-34. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2005.09.007. Epub 2006 Mar 6. PMID: 16520073. Supplementing the diet with blueberries may protect against oxidative damage in sled dogs.
Blueberries High antioxidants Anti-inflammatory Molecular Mechanism and Health Role of Functional Ingredients in Blueberry for Chronic Disease in Human Beings International Journal of Molecular Sciencies 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6164568/ Ma L, Sun Z, Zeng Y, Luo M, Yang J. Molecular Mechanism and Health Role of Functional Ingredients in Blueberry for Chronic Disease in Human Beings. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(9):2785. Published 2018 Sep 16. doi:10.3390/ijms19092785 Blueberry is rich in flavonoids (mainly anthocyanidins), polyphenols (procyanidin), phenolic acids, pyruvic acid, chlorogenic acid, and others, which have anticancer, anti-obesity, prevent degenerative diseases, anti-inflammation, protective properties for vision and liver, prevent heart diseases, antidiabetes, improve brain function, protective lung properties, strong bones, enhance immunity, prevent cardiovascular diseases, and improve cognitive decline.
Blueberries Blueberries Improve Pain, Gait Performance, and Inflammation in Individuals with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Nutrients 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413191/ Du C, Smith A, Avalos M, et al. Blueberries Improve Pain, Gait Performance, and Inflammation in Individuals with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis. Nutrients. 2019;11(2):290. Published 2019 Jan 29. doi:10.3390/nu11020290 Blueberries reduce pain, stiffness, and difficulty performing daily activites in osteoarthritic individuals; improve gait performance.
Blueberries High antioxidants Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 2017 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5508397/ Sechi S, Fiore F, Chiavolelli F, Dimauro C, Nudda A, Cocco R. Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs. Can J Vet Res. 2017;81(3):206-216. Balanced antioxidant diet may be a valid approach to restoring good cell metabolism and neutralizing excess free radicals in therapy dogs.
Blueberries Effect of Blueberry Consumption on Cardiometabolic Health Parameters in Men with Type 2 Diabetes: An 8-Week, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Currrent Developments in Nutrition 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32337475/ Stote KS, Wilson MM, Hallenbeck D, Thomas K, Rourke JM, Sweeney MI, Gottschall-Pass KT, Gosmanov AR. Effect of Blueberry Consumption on Cardiometabolic Health Parameters in Men with Type 2 Diabetes: An 8-Week, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Curr Dev Nutr. 2020 Mar 9;4(4):nzaa030. doi: 10.1093/cdn/nzaa030. PMID: 32337475; PMCID: PMC7170047. Blueberries can beneficially affect cardiometabolic health parameters.
Blueberries Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 2010 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20047325/ Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Nash TA, Kalt W, Vinqvist-Tymchuk MR, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JA. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Apr 14;58(7):3996-4000. doi: 10.1021/jf9029332. PMID: 20047325; PMCID: PMC2850944. Blueberries associated with improved memory function and learning in older adults.
Blueberries Recent Research on the Health Benefits of Blueberries and Their Anthocyanins Advances in Nutrition 2020 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442370/ Kalt W, Cassidy A, Howard LR, et al. Recent Research on the Health Benefits of Blueberries and Their Anthocyanins. Adv Nutr. 2020;11(2):224-236. doi:10.1093/advances/nmz065 Epidemiological studies associate regular, moderate intake of blueberries and/or anthocyanins with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, death, and type 2 diabetes, and with improved weight maintenance and neuroprotection.
Carrots Nutritional composition of selected green leafy vegetables, herbs and carrots Plant Food for Human Nutrition 2001 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11678441/ Singh G, Kawatra A, Sehgal S. Nutritional composition of selected green leafy vegetables, herbs and carrots. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2001;56(4):359-64. doi: 10.1023/a:1011873119620. PMID: 11678441. Carrots are high in numerous micro- and macronutrients, including iron, vitamin C, and more.
Carrots Meeting the Vitamin A Requirement: The Efficacy and Importance of β-Carotene in Animal Species Scientific World Journal 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5090096/ Alice S. Green, Andrea J. Fascetti, "Meeting the Vitamin A Requirement: The Efficacy and Importance of β-Carotene in Animal Species", The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2016, Article ID 7393620, 22 pages, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7393620 Review: a source of beta-carotene (e.g., carrots) is critical for dogs. Low vitamin A can cause weight loss, poor immune functioning and visual problems in dogs, and impede normal growth in puppies.
Carrots Safety evaluation of vitamin A in growing dogs British Journal of Nutrition 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3513714/ Morris PJ, Salt C, Raila J, et al. Safety evaluation of vitamin A in growing dogs. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(10):1800-1809. doi:10.1017/S0007114512000128 Vitamin A essential for development, but supplementation can lead to excess vitamin A.
Carrots Vitamin A-responsive dermatosis in the dog Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1983 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6221006/ Ihrke PJ, Goldschmidt MH. Vitamin A-responsive dermatosis in the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1983 Apr 1;182(7):687-90. PMID: 6221006. Oral treatment with vitamin A (rich in carrots) helps certain skin disorders.
Carrots Chemical composition, functional properties and processing of carrot—a review Journal of Food Science and Technology 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3550877/ Sharma KD, Karki S, Thakur NS, Attri S. Chemical composition, functional properties and processing of carrot-a review. J Food Sci Technol. 2012;49(1):22-32. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0310-7 Carrots contains high levels of beta-carotene and dietary fibre.
Chia seeds The Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Chia Seeds-Current State of Knowledge Nutrients 2019 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31159190/ Kulczyński B, Kobus-Cisowska J, Taczanowski M, Kmiecik D, Gramza-Michałowska A. The Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Chia Seeds-Current State of Knowledge. Nutrients. 2019 May 31;11(6):1242. doi: 10.3390/nu11061242. PMID: 31159190; PMCID: PMC6627181. Overview of chia seeds nutritional profile: contains calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamin C, vitamin E, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, folate and more
Chia seeds What is the role of alpha-linolenic acid for mammals? Lipids 2002 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12617463/ Sinclair AJ, Attar-Bashi NM, Li D. What is the role of alpha-linolenic acid for mammals? Lipids. 2002 Dec;37(12):1113-23. doi: 10.1007/s11745-002-1008-x. PMID: 12617463. Alpha-linoleic acid (high in chia seeds) is believed to aid fur and skin health.
Chia seeds The effects of dietary fibre type on satiety-related hormones and voluntary food intake in dogs British Journal of Nutrition 2009 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19144213/ Bosch G, Verbrugghe A, Hesta M, Holst JJ, van der Poel AF, Janssens GP, Hendriks WH. The effects of dietary fibre type on satiety-related hormones and voluntary food intake in dogs. Br J Nutr. 2009 Jul;102(2):318-25. doi: 10.1017/S0007114508149194. Epub 2009 Jan 15. PMID: 19144213. Dogs supplemented with fibre (high in chia seeds) reduce obesity and mitigated canine diabetes.
Chia seeds Chia Seeds (Salvia Hispanica L.): An Overview—Phytochemical Profile, Isolation Methods, and Application Molecules 2020 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994964/ Knez Hrnčič M, Ivanovski M, Cör D, Knez Ž. Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.): An Overview-Phytochemical Profile, Isolation Methods, and Application. Molecules. 2019;25(1):11. Published 2019 Dec 18. doi:10.3390/molecules25010011 Chia seeds are a very high source of dietary fibre: 34-40g per 100g of seeds.
Chia seeds Anti-inflammatory potential of chia seeds oil and mucilage against adjuvant-induced arthritis in obese and non-obese rats Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32134733/ Mohamed DA, Mohamed RS, Fouda K. Anti-inflammatory potential of chia seeds oil and mucilage against adjuvant-induced arthritis in obese and non-obese rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2020 Mar 5;31(4):/j/jbcpp.2020.31.issue-4/jbcpp-2019-0236/jbcpp-2019-0236.xml. doi: 10.1515/jbcpp-2019-0236. PMID: 32134733. Chia seeds reduced arthritis via anti-inflammatory effects in obese and non-obese rats.
Chia seeds Alpha-linolenic acid: is it essential to cardiovascular health? Current Atherosclerosis Reports 2010 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20814766/ Geleijnse JM, de Goede J, Brouwer IA. Alpha-linolenic acid: is it essential to cardiovascular health? Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2010 Nov;12(6):359-67. doi: 10.1007/s11883-010-0137-0. PMID: 20814766; PMCID: PMC2943064. Alpha-linoleic acid (high in chia seeds) protects against heart attacks.
Chia seeds Diet, fatty acids, and regulation of genes important for heart disease Current Atherosclerosis Reports 2004 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15485588/ Vanden Heuvel JP. Diet, fatty acids, and regulation of genes important for heart disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2004 Nov;6(6):432-40. doi: 10.1007/s11883-004-0083-9. PMID: 15485588. Evidence that alpha-linoleic acid (high in chia seeds) is beneficial against narrowing arteries, diabetes, and obesity.
Chia seeds Chia seed ( Salvia hispanica L.) supplementation to the diet of adults with type 2 diabetes improved systolic blood pressure: A randomized controlled trial Nutrition and Health 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33530854/ Alwosais EZM, Al-Ozairi E, Zafar TA, Alkandari S. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) supplementation to the diet of adults with type 2 diabetes improved systolic blood pressure: A randomized controlled trial. Nutr Health. 2021 Jun;27(2):181-189. doi: 10.1177/0260106020981819. Epub 2021 Feb 2. PMID: 33530854. Chia seeds signifcantly reduced blood pressure in a randomized trial.
Chai seeds Managing Feline Idiopathic Hypercalcemia With Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.): A Case Series Frontiers in Veterinary Science 2020 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387619/ Fantinati M, Priymenko N. Managing Feline Idiopathic Hypercalcemia With Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.): A Case Series. Front Vet Sci. 2020;7:421. Published 2020 Jul 22. doi:10.3389/fvets.2020.00421 Chia seeds beneficial in managing feline idiopathic hypercalcemia
Chai seeds Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica): health promoting properties and therapeutic applications – a review Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny 2017 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28646829/ Marcinek K, Krejpcio Z. Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica): health promoting properties and therapeutic applications – a review. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2017;68(2):123-129. PMID: 28646829. Chia seeds may be beneficial in obesity, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
Chai seeds Long-Term Dietary Intake of Chia Seed Is Associated with Increased Bone Mineral Content and Improved Hepatic and Intestinal Morphology in Sprague-Dawley Rats Nutrients 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073254/ Montes Chañi EM, Pacheco SOS, Martínez GA, et al. Long-Term Dietary Intake of Chia Seed Is Associated with Increased Bone Mineral Content and Improved Hepatic and Intestinal Morphology in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Nutrients. 2018;10(7):922. Published 2018 Jul 19. doi:10.3390/nu10070922 Chia seeds increased bone mineral content and improved hepatic and intestinal morphology in rats.
Chai seeds Clinical evidence on dietary supplementation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.): a systematic review and meta-analysis Nutrition Reviews 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29452425/ Teoh SL, Lai NM, Vanichkulpitak P, Vuksan V, Ho H, Chaiyakunapruk N. Clinical evidence on dietary supplementation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2018 Apr 1;76(4):219-242. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nux071. PMID: 29452425. Review: Chia seeds lowered blood glucose levels and blood pressure.
Chai seeds High omega-3 Alpha-Linolenic Acid: An Omega-3 Fatty Acid with Neuroprotective Properties—Ready for Use in the Stroke Clinic? BioMed Research International 2015 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350958/ Blondeau N, Lipsky RH, Bourourou M, Duncan MW, Gorelick PB, Marini AM. Alpha-linolenic acid: an omega-3 fatty acid with neuroprotective properties-ready for use in the stroke clinic?. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:519830. doi:10.1155/2015/519830 Alpha-linolenic acid (high in chia seeds) protects against stroke and neuro damage in rats.
Chai seeds High omega-3 Alpha-lipoic acid as a dietary supplement: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential Biochim Biophys Acta 2009 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2756298/ Shay KP, Moreau RF, Smith EJ, Smith AR, Hagen TM. Alpha-lipoic acid as a dietary supplement: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790(10):1149-1160. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2009.07.026 Alpha-linolenic acid is an antioxidant appropriate for treating diabetes, vascular disease, hypertension, and inflammation.
Chai seeds High omega-3 Effects of alpha-linolenic acid versus those of EPA/DHA on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy elderly subjects European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16482073/ Goyens PL, Mensink RP. Effects of alpha-linolenic acid versus those of EPA/DHA on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy elderly subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Aug;60(8):978-84. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602408. Epub 2006 Feb 15. PMID: 16482073. Alpha-linolenic acid affects LDL cholesterol more effectively than EPA/DHA.
Coconut oil Investigating owner use of dietary supplements in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy Research in Veterinary Science 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30064067/ Berk BA, Packer RMA, Law TH, Volk HA. Investigating owner use of dietary supplements in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Res Vet Sci. 2018 Aug;119:276-284. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2018.07.004. Epub 2018 Jul 24. PMID: 30064067. Owners commonly reported opting for coconut oil after their dogs receive a diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy (IE).
Coconut oil Dietary intervention for canine epilepsy: Two case reports Epilepsia Open 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398089/ Masino, SA, Freedgood, NR, Reichert, HR, Director, CJ, Whittemore, VH, Zupec-Kania, B. Dietary intervention for canine epilepsy: Two case reports. Epilepsia Open. 2019; 4: 193– 199. https://doi.org/10.1002/epi4.12305 Administration of a specialised diet (including coconut oil) lead to a significant reduction in seizures.
Coconut oil Efficacy of medium chain triglyceride oil dietary supplementation in reducing seizure frequency in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy without cluster seizures: a non-blinded, prospective clinical trial The Veterinary Record 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32532842/ Molina J, Jean-Philippe C, Conboy L, Añor S, de la Fuente C, Wrzosek MA, Spycher A, Luchsinger E, Wenger-Riggenbach B, Montoliu P, Gandini G, Menchetti M, Ribeiro JC, Varejão A, Ferreira A, Zanghi B, Volk HA. Efficacy of medium chain triglyceride oil dietary supplementation in reducing seizure frequency in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy without cluster seizures: a non-blinded, prospective clinical trial. Vet Rec. 2020 Oct 31;187(9):356. doi: 10.1136/vr.105410. Epub 2020 Jun 12. PMID: 32532842; PMCID: PMC7799411. Administration of triglyceride oils (around half of which was coconut oil) led to significant reduction in seizures.
Coconut oil Dietary medium chain triglycerides for management of epilepsy: New data from human, dog, and rodent studies Epilepsia 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34169513/ Han FY, Conboy-Schmidt L, Rybachuk G, Volk HA, Zanghi B, Pan Y, Borges K. Dietary medium chain triglycerides for management of epilepsy: New data from human, dog, and rodent studies. Epilepsia. 2021 Aug;62(8):1790-1806. doi: 10.1111/epi.16972. Epub 2021 Jun 25. PMID: 34169513; PMCID: PMC8453917. Review of studies for dogs, humans, and rats found MCTs (including coconut oil) led to a signficant decrease in epileptic symptoms.
Coconut oil Medium-chain triglycerides inhibit free radical formation and TNF-alpha production in rats given enteral ethanol American Journal of Physiology 2000 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10712267/ Kono H, Enomoto N, Connor HD, Wheeler MD, Bradford BU, Rivera CA, Kadiiska MB, Mason RP, Thurman RG. Medium-chain triglycerides inhibit free radical formation and TNF-alpha production in rats given enteral ethanol. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000 Mar;278(3):G467-76. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.2000.278.3.G467. PMID: 10712267. Medium-chain triglycerides (like coconut oil) prevent alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.
Coconut oil Health Effects of Coconut Oil-A Narrative Review of Current Evidence Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2019 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30395784/ Wallace TC. Health Effects of Coconut Oil-A Narrative Review of Current Evidence. J Am Coll Nutr. 2019 Feb;38(2):97-107. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2018.1497562. Epub 2018 Nov 5. PMID: 30395784. Review: coconut oil may prevent hair damage, helps weight loss, and benefics cardiovascular disease.
Coconut oil Anti-inflammatory Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil Pharmaceutical Biology 2010 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20645831/ Intahphuak S, Khonsung P, Panthong A. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil. Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb;48(2):151-7. doi: 10.3109/13880200903062614. PMID: 20645831. Coconul oil has anti-inflammatry, analgesic, and anti-fever properties.
Coconut oil Efficacy of a Therapeutic Diet on Dogs With Signs of Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome (CDS): A Prospective Double Blinded Placebo Controlled Clinical Study Frontiers in Nutrition 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299068/ Pan Y, Landsberg G, Mougeot I, et al. Efficacy of a Therapeutic Diet on Dogs With Signs of Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome (CDS): A Prospective Double Blinded Placebo Controlled Clinical Study. Front Nutr. 2018;5:127. Published 2018 Dec 12. doi:10.3389/fnut.2018.00127 Medium-chain triglycerides improve cognitive functioning and manage cognitive dysfunction syndrome in dogs.
Coconut oil Chemical composition and health benefits of coconut oil: an overview Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33022082/ Deen A, Visvanathan R, Wickramarachchi D, Marikkar N, Nammi S, Jayawardana BC, Liyanage R. Chemical composition and health benefits of coconut oil: an overview. J Sci Food Agric. 2021 Apr;101(6):2182-2193. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.10870. Epub 2020 Oct 29. PMID: 33022082. Coconut oil has attracted attention due to its hypocholesterolemic, anticancer, antihepatosteatotic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and skin moisturizing properties.
Coconut oil Health effects of coconut oil: Summary of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analysis of interventional studies Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33689936/ Jayawardena R, Swarnamali H, Ranasinghe P, Misra A. Health effects of coconut oil: Summary of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analysis of interventional studies. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2021 Mar-Apr;15(2):549-555. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2021.02.032. Epub 2021 Mar 3. PMID: 33689936. Limited studies showed that topical use of coconut oil helps in the prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis and oil pulling for the prevention of dental caries.
Coconut oil Impact of coconut oil consumption on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis Nutrition Reviews 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31769848/ Teng M, Zhao YJ, Khoo AL, Yeo TC, Yong QW, Lim BP. Impact of coconut oil consumption on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2020 Mar 1;78(3):249-259. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuz074. PMID: 31769848. Compared with animal oils, coconut oil demonstrated a better lipid profile in comparison with plant oils, coconut oil significantly increased HDL-C and LDL-C.
Cranberries Effect of Cranberry Extract on the Frequency of Bacteriuria in Dogs with Acute Thoracolumbar Disk Herniation: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2017 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5259620/ Olby, N J et al. “Effect of Cranberry Extract on the Frequency of Bacteriuria in Dogs with Acute Thoracolumbar Disk Herniation: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.” Journal of veterinary internal medicine vol. 31,1 (2017): 60-68. doi:10.1111/jvim.14613 Cranberry may have a slightly protectative effect against E. coli UTIs.
Cranberries Effects of cranberry extract on prevention of urinary tract infection in dogs and on adhesion of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells American Journal of Veterinary Research 2016 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27027843/ Chou HI, Chen KS, Wang HC, Lee WM. Effects of cranberry extract on prevention of urinary tract infection in dogs and on adhesion of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Am J Vet Res. 2016 Apr;77(4):421-7. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.77.4.421. PMID: 27027843. Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E coli adherence to MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs.
Cranberries Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) dietary supplementation and fecal microbiota of Wistar rats AIMS Microbiology 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255906/ Chettaoui R, Mayot G, De Almeida L, Di Martino P. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) dietary supplementation and fecal microbiota of Wistar rats. AIMS Microbiol. 2021;7(2):257-270. Published 2021 Jun 30. doi:10.3934/microbiol.2021016 Cranberry extracts did not induce significant changes in fecel microbiota, nor body mass gains.
Cranberries Cranberry flavonoids, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular health Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2002 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12058989/ Reed J. Cranberry flavonoids, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2002;42(3 Suppl):301-16. doi: 10.1080/10408390209351919. PMID: 12058989. Review: cranberries contain flavonoids which protect again atherosclerosis.
Cranberries Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention Clinics 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3370320/ Hisano M, Bruschini H, Nicodemo AC, Srougi M. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67(6):661-668. doi:10.6061/clinics/2012(06)18 Cranberries may reduce the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs).
Cranberries Cranberries - potential benefits in patients with chronic kidney disease Food & Function 2019 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31140512/ de Almeida Alvarenga L , Borges NA , Moreira LSG , Resende Teixeira KT , Carraro-Eduardo JC , Dai L , Stenvinkel P , Lindholm B , Mafra D . Cranberries - potential benefits in patients with chronic kidney disease. Food Funct. 2019 Jun 19;10(6):3103-3112. doi: 10.1039/c9fo00375d. PMID: 31140512. Cranberries prevent UTIs, and phytochemicals modulate gut microbiotia - potentially beneficial for CKD complications.
Cranberries Cranberry Polyphenols and Prevention against Urinary Tract Infections: Relevant Considerations Molecules 2020 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7436188/ González de Llano D, Moreno-Arribas MV, Bartolomé B. Cranberry Polyphenols and Prevention against Urinary Tract Infections: Relevant Considerations. Molecules. 2020;25(15):3523. Published 2020 Aug 1. doi:10.3390/molecules25153523 Review: Cranberries are a distinct source of flavonoids and phenolic acids that protect against UTIs.
Cranberries High antioxidants Effects of Natural Antioxidants on The Stability of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Dog Food Journal of Veterinary Research 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29978134/ Glodde F, Günal M, Kinsel ME, AbuGhazaleh A. Effects of Natural Antioxidants on The Stability of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Dog Food. J Vet Res. 2018 Mar 30;62(1):103-108. doi: 10.1515/jvetres-2018-0014. PMID: 29978134; PMCID: PMC5957468. Cranberry extract equivalent to synthetic antioxidants.
Eggs Enhancing effects of chicken egg white derivatives on the phagocytic response in the dog Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 1995 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8593287/ Hirota Y, Yang MP, Araki S, Yoshihara K, Furusawa S, Yasuda M, Mohamed A, Matsumoto Y, Onodera T. Enhancing effects of chicken egg white derivatives on the phagocytic response in the dog. J Vet Med Sci. 1995 Oct;57(5):825-9. doi: 10.1292/jvms.57.825. PMID: 8593287. Chicken egg white derivatives enhance the fuction of white blood cells.
Eggs Egg Intake in Chronic Kidney Disease Nutrients 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30544535/ Tallman DA, Sahathevan S, Karupaiah T, Khosla P. Egg Intake in Chronic Kidney Disease. Nutrients. 2018 Dec 7;10(12):1945. doi: 10.3390/nu10121945. PMID: 30544535; PMCID: PMC6315879. Eggs can be beneficial to chronic kidney disease patients - high in minerals and leucine.
Eggs Selenium and Dogs: A Systematic Review Animals 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915357/ Zentrichová V, Pechová A, Kovaříková S. Selenium and Dogs: A Systematic Review. Animals (Basel). 2021;11(2):418. Published 2021 Feb 6. doi:10.3390/ani11020418 Selenium deficiency may play a role in fertility, parasitical diseases, and cancer in dogs. (Eggs are a source of selenium).
Eggs Egg consumption and heart health: A review Nutrition 2017 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28359368/ Clayton ZS, Fusco E, Kern M. Egg consumption and heart health: A review. Nutrition. 2017 May;37:79-85. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2016.12.014. Epub 2016 Dec 29. PMID: 28359368. Eggs appear to be safe for people with heart conditions.
Eggs Distribution of selenium in egg white and yolk after feeding natural and synthetic selenium compounds Poultry Science 1975 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1161714/ Latshaw JD, Osman M. Distribution of selenium in egg white and yolk after feeding natural and synthetic selenium compounds. Poult Sci. 1975 Jul;54(4):1244-52. doi: 10.3382/ps.0541244. PMID: 1161714. Selenium levels were high in eggs.
Eggs Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium Journal of Animal Science 2012 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22307479/ Todd SE, Thomas DG, Bosch G, Hendriks WH. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium. J Anim Sci. 2012 Aug;90(8):2549-55. doi: 10.2527/jas.2011-3911. Epub 2012 Feb 3. PMID: 22307479. Dogs and cats overfed selenium did not show signs of selenosis.
Eggs Minimally-processed food Selenium Digestibility and Bioactivity in Dogs: What the Can Can, the Kibble Can't PLoS One 2016 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27043433/ van Zelst M, Hesta M, Gray K, Beech K, Cools A, Alexander LG, Du Laing G, Janssens GP. Selenium Digestibility and Bioactivity in Dogs: What the Can Can, the Kibble Can't. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 4;11(4):e0152709. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152709. PMID: 27043433; PMCID: PMC4820116. Lower selenim digestibility in canned versus kibble diets.
Eggs The Golden Egg: Nutritional Value, Bioactivities, and Emerging Benefits for Human Health Nutrients 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470839/ Réhault-Godbert S, Guyot N, Nys Y. The Golden Egg: Nutritional Value, Bioactivities, and Emerging Benefits for Human Health. Nutrients. 2019;11(3):684. Published 2019 Mar 22. doi:10.3390/nu11030684 Overview of nutritional value of eggs: strong protein and nutrient profile.
Eggs The importance of egg protein in reduced protein diets designed for dogs with renal failure Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 1988 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3221351/ Polzin DJ, Osborne CA. The importance of egg protein in reduced protein diets designed for dogs with renal failure. J Vet Intern Med. 1988 Jan-Mar;2(1):15-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.1988.tb01972.x. PMID: 3221351. Egg-protein diets useful in helping dogs with induced chronic renal failure.
Flaxseed Anti-inflammatory Flaxseed oil supplementation alters the expression of inflammatory-related genes in dogs Genetics and Molecular Research 2014 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25078588/ Purushothaman D, Brown WY, Vanselow BA, Quinn K, Wu SB. Flaxseed oil supplementation alters the expression of inflammatory-related genes in dogs. Genet Mol Res. 2014 Jul 24;13(3):5322-32. doi: 10.4238/2014.July.24.11. PMID: 25078588. Flaxseed supplementation reduced the expression of inflammation-related genes in dogs.
Flaxseed Anti-inflammatory Effect of flaxseed on systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic rats with or without chronic kidney disease PLoS One 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8525749/ Al Za’abi M, Ali H, Ali BH (2021) Effect of flaxseed on systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic rats with or without chronic kidney disease. PLoS ONE 16(10): e0258800. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258800 Flaxseed supplementation improved kidney function and reduced systemating inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic rats.
Flaxseed Flaxseed: a potential source of food, feed and fiber Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2011 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21390942/ Singh KK, Mridula D, Rehal J, Barnwal P. Flaxseed: a potential source of food, feed and fiber. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Mar;51(3):210-22. doi: 10.1080/10408390903537241. PMID: 21390942. Overview of flaxseed nutrients: rich in fibre, omega-3s, protein, alpha-linolenic acid, lignans, and more
Flaxseed The Effects of Nutrition on the Gastrointestinal Microbiome of Cats and Dogs: Impact on Health and Disease Frontiers in Microbiology 2020 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329990/ Wernimont SM, Radosevich J, Jackson MI, Ephraim E, Badri DV, MacLeay JM, Jewell DE and Suchodolski JS (2020) The Effects of Nutrition on the Gastrointestinal Microbiome of Cats and Dogs: Impact on Health and Disease. Front. Microbiol. 11:1266. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.01266 High fibre diets are prebiotic - producing substantial changes in a dog's guy microbiome (flaxseeds are rich in soluble fibre).
Flaxseed Effects of dietary flax seed and sunflower seed supplementation on normal canine serum polyunsaturated fatty acids and skin and hair coat condition scores Veterinary Dermatology 2001 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11360337/ Rees CA, Bauer JE, Burkholder WJ, Kennis RA, Dunbar BL, Bigley KE. Effects of dietary flax seed and sunflower seed supplementation on normal canine serum polyunsaturated fatty acids and skin and hair coat condition scores. Vet Dermatol. 2001 Apr;12(2):111-7. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3164.2001.00234.x. PMID: 11360337. Flaxseed supplementation led to a significant improvement in skin and coat condition after 28 days.
Flaxseed High antioxidants Oxygen Free Radicals and Endotoxic Shock: Effect of Flaxseed Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1998 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10684513/ Pattanaik U, Prasad K. Oxygen Free Radicals and Endotoxic Shock: Effect of Flaxseed. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Oct;3(4):305-318. doi: 10.1177/107424849800300406. PMID: 10684513. Flaxseed oil saw improved outcomes during endotoxaemic shock (in dogs) - condition linked to heart disease and type II diabetes.
Flaxseed Flaxseed Increases Animal Lifespan and Reduces Ovarian Cancer Severity by Toxically Augmenting One-Carbon Metabolism Molecules 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8471351/ Weston WC, Hales KH, Hales DB. Flaxseed Increases Animal Lifespan and Reduces Ovarian Cancer Severity by Toxically Augmenting One-Carbon Metabolism. Molecules. 2021;26(18):5674. Published 2021 Sep 18. doi:10.3390/molecules26185674 Flaxseed protects against cancer, improved liver function, and increased longevity in hens.
Flaxseed Flaxseed Lignans as Important Dietary Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention and Treatment: Chemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Molecular Targets Pharmaceuticals 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6630319/ De Silva SF, Alcorn J. Flaxseed Lignans as Important Dietary Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention and Treatment: Chemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Molecular Targets. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2019;12(2):68. Published 2019 May 5. doi:10.3390/ph12020068 Flaxseed lignans may benefit cancer prevention and treatment.
Flaxseed Metabolism of alpha-linolenic acid from flaxseed in dogs World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 1998 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9648515/ Bibus DM, Stitt PA. Metabolism of alpha-linolenic acid from flaxseed in dogs. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1998;83:186-98. doi: 10.1159/000059664. PMID: 9648515. How alpha-linolenic acid is metabolism from flaxseed in dogs.
Flaxseed Flaxseed—a potential functional food source Journal of Food Science and Technology 2015 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4375225/ Kajla P, Sharma A, Sood DR. Flaxseed-a potential functional food source. J Food Sci Technol. 2015;52(4):1857-1871. doi:10.1007/s13197-014-1293-y Flaxseed a major source of fibre, essential fatty acids, lignans, and other bioactive molecules.
Flaxseed Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type Nutrition and Metabolism 2012 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22305169/ Kristensen M, Jensen MG, Aarestrup J, Petersen KE, Søndergaard L, Mikkelsen MS, Astrup A. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012 Feb 3;9:8. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-9-8. PMID: 22305169; PMCID: PMC3307491. Flaxseed dietary fibres useful for lowering blood cholesterol and aiding energy balance.
Flaxseed Dietary Flaxseed as a Strategy for Improving Human Health Nutrients 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6567199/ Parikh M, Maddaford TG, Austria JA, Aliani M, Netticadan T, Pierce GN. Dietary Flaxseed as a Strategy for Improving Human Health. Nutrients. 2019;11(5):1171. Published 2019 May 25. doi:10.3390/nu11051171 Flaxseed has benefits associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Flaxseed Flaxseed supplementation on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 randomized, placebo-controlled trials Nutrition Reviews 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29228348/ Mohammadi-Sartang M, Sohrabi Z, Barati-Boldaji R, Raeisi-Dehkordi H, Mazloom Z. Flaxseed supplementation on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Nutr Rev. 2018 Feb 1;76(2):125-139. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nux052. PMID: 29228348. Whole flaxseed, but not flaxseed oil and lignan extract, has significant effects on improving glycemic control.
Flaxseed The Effect of Flaxseed in Breast Cancer: A Literature Review Frontiers in Nutrition 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29468163/ Calado A, Neves PM, Santos T, Ravasco P. The Effect of Flaxseed in Breast Cancer: A Literature Review. Front Nutr. 2018 Feb 7;5:4. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2018.00004. PMID: 29468163; PMCID: PMC5808339. In animal studies, α-linolenic acids have been shown to be able to suppress growth, size, and proliferation of cancer cells and also to promote breast cancer cell death.
Flaxseed Flaxseed: its bioactive components and their cardiovascular benefits American Journal of Physiology 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29101172/ Parikh M, Netticadan T, Pierce GN. Flaxseed: its bioactive components and their cardiovascular benefits. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2018 Feb 1;314(2):H146-H159. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00400.2017. Epub 2017 Nov 3. PMID: 29101172. The cardiovascular effects of dietary flaxseed have included an antihypertensive action, antiatherogenic effects, a lowering of cholesterol, an anti-inflammatory action, and an inhibition of arrhythmias.
Flaxseed Flaxseed-a potential functional food source Journal of Food Science and Technology 2015 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25829567/ Kajla P, Sharma A, Sood DR. Flaxseed-a potential functional food source. J Food Sci Technol. 2015 Apr;52(4):1857-71. doi: 10.1007/s13197-014-1293-y. Epub 2014 Feb 28. PMID: 25829567; PMCID: PMC4375225. Flaxseeds contain  nutrients, lignans, dietary fibre, and essential fatty acids critical for canine health.
Flaxseed Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials Journal of Nutrition 2015 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25740909/ Khalesi S, Irwin C, Schubert M. Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Nutr. 2015 Apr;145(4):758-65. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.205302. Epub 2015 Mar 4. Erratum in: J Nutr. 2015 Nov;145(11):2633. PMID: 25740909. Consumption of flaxseed may lower blood pressure slightly. The beneficial potential of flaxseed to reduce blood pressure (especially diastolic blood pressure) may be greater when it is consumed as a whole seed and for a duration of >12 wk.
Fresh beef Nutritional value of beef Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine 2011 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22844741/ Bourre JM. Apports nutritifs des viandes bovines [Nutritional value of beef]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 2011 Nov;195(8):1787-99. French. PMID: 22844741. Overview of nutritional value of beeef: rich in iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin B12, B vitamins, and biologically useful proteins.
Fresh chicken Minimally-processed food Evaluation of meat meal, chicken meal, and corn gluten meal as dietary sources of protein in dry cat food Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 2005 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1250243/ Funaba M, Oka Y, Kobayashi S, et al. Evaluation of meat meal, chicken meal, and corn gluten meal as dietary sources of protein in dry cat food. Can J Vet Res. 2005;69(4):299-304. Chicken meal better for digestibility than corn gluten meal for cat food.
Fresh chicken Minimally-processed food Fresh beef Nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics, microbiota, and metabolites in dogs fed human-grade foods Journal of Animal Science 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33511410/ Do S, Phungviwatnikul T, de Godoy MRC, Swanson KS. Nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics, microbiota, and metabolites in dogs fed human-grade foods. J Anim Sci. 2021 Feb 1;99(2):skab028. doi: 10.1093/jas/skab028. PMID: 33511410; PMCID: PMC8611730. Human-grade pet foods are highly digestible maintaining normal dog characteristics.
Fresh chicken Role of poultry meat in a balanced diet aimed at maintaining health and wellbeing: an Italian consensus document Food and Nutrition Research 2015 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4462824/ Marangoni F, Corsello G, Cricelli C, et al. Role of poultry meat in a balanced diet aimed at maintaining health and wellbeing: an Italian consensus document. Food Nutr Res. 2015;59:27606. Published 2015 Jun 9. doi:10.3402/fnr.v59.27606 Poultry meat consumption is protective or neutral on cancer risk.
Fresh meat A high protein high fibre diet improves weight loss in obese dogs Veterinary Journal 2010 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19138868/ German AJ, Holden SL, Bissot T, Morris PJ, Biourge V. A high protein high fibre diet improves weight loss in obese dogs. Vet J. 2010 Mar;183(3):294-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.12.004. Epub 2009 Jan 12. PMID: 19138868. High protein, high fibre diets improve weight loss in obese dogs.
Fresh meat Minimally-processed food Pet food safety: dietary protein Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 2008 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18656844/ Laflamme DP. Pet food safety: dietary protein. Top Companion Anim Med. 2008 Aug;23(3):154-7. doi: 10.1053/j.tcam.2008.04.009. PMID: 18656844. Protein requirements increase with age.
Fresh meat Raw meat-based diets for dogs: survey of owners’ motivations, attitudes and practices BMC Veterinary Research 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399943/ Morelli G, Bastianello S, Catellani P, Ricci R. Raw meat-based diets for dogs: survey of owners' motivations, attitudes and practices. BMC Vet Res. 2019;15(1):74. Published 2019 Mar 4. doi:10.1186/s12917-019-1824-x Pet owners unaware of the risks of a raw food diet for pets.
Fresh meat Fresh chicken Fresh beef Dietary Protein Quantity, Quality, and Exercise Are Key to Healthy Living: A Muscle-Centric Perspective Across the Lifespan Frontiers in Nutrition 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6563776/ Burd NA, McKenna CF, Salvador AF, Paulussen KJM, Moore DR. Dietary Protein Quantity, Quality, and Exercise Are Key to Healthy Living: A Muscle-Centric Perspective Across the Lifespan. Front Nutr. 2019;6:83. Published 2019 Jun 6. doi:10.3389/fnut.2019.00083 Protein quantity and quality are critical to maintaining muscle mass and a healthy life.
Fresh meat Fresh chicken Fresh beef Protein – Which is Best? Journal of Sports Science & Medicine 2004 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3905294/ Hoffman JR, Falvo MJ. Protein - Which is Best?. J Sports Sci Med. 2004;3(3):118-130. Published 2004 Sep 1. Evaluation of different protein types, highlighting the importance of animal protein as providing a complete source of essential amino acids.
Fresh meat Fresh chicken Fresh beef Amino Acids in Dog Nutrition and Health Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33770408/ Oberbauer AM, Larsen JA. Amino Acids in Dog Nutrition and Health. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1285:199-216. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-54462-1_10. PMID: 33770408. A reliable source of amino acids is critical to ensure nutritional adequacy for dogs.
Gluten-free oats Anti-inflammatory Healing fats of the skin: the structural and immunologic roles of the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids Clinical Dermatology 2010 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20620762/ McCusker MM, Grant-Kels JM. Healing fats of the skin: the structural and immunologic roles of the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Clin Dermatol. 2010 Jul-Aug;28(4):440-51. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2010.03.020. PMID: 20620762. Linoleic acid helps maintain the skin barrier, promote wound healing, and soothe inflammation. (Linoleic acid is found in oats.)
Gluten-free oats Effects of Vitamin B Complex and Vitamin C on Human Skin Cells: Is the Perceived Effect Measurable? Advances in Skin and Wound Care 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29672394/ Rembe JD, Fromm-Dornieden C, Stuermer EK. Effects of Vitamin B Complex and Vitamin C on Human Skin Cells: Is the Perceived Effect Measurable? Adv Skin Wound Care. 2018 May;31(5):225-233. doi: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000531351.85866.d9. PMID: 29672394. B vitamins play a critical role in producing healthy skin cells, needed for healing. (B vitamins found in oats.)
Gluten-free oats Clinical and Physiological Perspectives of β-Glucans: The Past, Present, and Future International Journal of Molecular Sciencies 2017 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5618555/ Bashir, K.M.I.; Choi, J.-S. Clinical and Physiological Perspectives of β-Glucans: The Past, Present, and Future. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1906. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091906 Beta-clucans are anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, immune system promoting. (Oats are rich on beta-glucans.)
Gluten-free oats Effect of oat consumption on lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic adults Journal of Medical Association of Thailand 2013 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24851570/ Thongoun P, Pavadhgul P, Bumrungpert A, Satitvipawee P, Harjani Y, Kurilich A. Effect of oat consumption on lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic adults. J Med Assoc Thai. 2013 Dec;96 Suppl 5:S25-32. PMID: 24851570. Following daily oat consumption, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly reduced below baseline.
Gluten-free oats Oat beta-glucan as a dietary supplement for dogs PLoS One 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6067736/ Ferreira LG, Endrighi M, Lisenko KG, de Oliveira MRD, Damasceno MR, Claudino JA, et al. (2018) Oat beta-glucan as a dietary supplement for dogs. PLoS ONE 13(7): e0201133. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201133 Dogs fed oats saw lower levels of total cholesterol, LDLs, and VLDLs compared to baseline.
Gluten-free oats β-Glucan successfully stimulated the immune system in different jawed vertebrate species Comparative Immunology, Microbiology, and Infectious Diseases 2019 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30711038/ de Oliveira CAF, Vetvicka V, Zanuzzo FS. β-Glucan successfully stimulated the immune system in different jawed vertebrate species. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Feb;62:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cimid.2018.11.006. Epub 2018 Nov 24. PMID: 30711038. Beta-glucans stimulated the immune system in mice, dogs, piglets, and chicks.
Gluten-free oats Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review Journal of Food Science and Technology 2015 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4325078/ Rasane, P., Jha, A., Sabikhi, L. et al. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review. J Food Sci Technol 52, 662–675 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1072-1 Overview of oats dietary profile: high in vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds, includng calcium, iron, magnesium, copper, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin.
Gluten-free oats Low fibre intake is associated with gut microbiota alterations in chronic heart failure ESC Heart Failure 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31978943/ Mayerhofer CCK, Kummen M, Holm K, Broch K, Awoyemi A, Vestad B, Storm-Larsen C, Seljeflot I, Ueland T, Bohov P, Berge RK, Svardal A, Gullestad L, Yndestad A, Aukrust P, Hov JR, Trøseid M. Low fibre intake is associated with gut microbiota alterations in chronic heart failure. ESC Heart Fail. 2020 Apr;7(2):456-466. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.12596. Epub 2020 Jan 24. PMID: 31978943; PMCID: PMC7160496. Low fibre causes altered gut microbiota which is associated with heart failure.
Gluten-free oats Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3236515/ El Khoury D, Cuda C, Luhovyy BL, Anderson GH. Beta glucan: health benefits in obesity and metabolic syndrome. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:851362. doi:10.1155/2012/851362 Beta-glucans beneficial in insuline resistance, dyslipedemia, hypertension and obesity.
Gluten-free oats Dietary fiber and satiety: the effects of oats on satiety Nutrition Reviews 2016 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26724486/ Rebello CJ, O'Neil CE, Greenway FL. Dietary fiber and satiety: the effects of oats on satiety. Nutr Rev. 2016 Feb;74(2):131-47. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuv063. Epub 2016 Jan 2. PMID: 26724486; PMCID: PMC4757923. Beta-glucans improve satiety or fullness.
Gluten-free oats β-Glucan as Trained Immunity-Based Adjuvants for Rabies Vaccines in Dogs Frontiers in Immunology 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33162977/ Paris S, Chapat L, Martin-Cagnon N, Durand PY, Piney L, Cariou C, Bergamo P, Bonnet JM, Poulet H, Freyburger L, De Luca K. β-Glucan as Trained Immunity-Based Adjuvants for Rabies Vaccines in Dogs. Front Immunol. 2020 Oct 8;11:564497. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.564497. PMID: 33162977; PMCID: PMC7580252. Beta-glucans helps bolster the adaptive immune systems response to vaccines in dogs.
Gluten-free oats A critical review on the impacts of β-glucans on gut microbiota and human health Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30196242/ Jayachandran M, Chen J, Chung SSM, Xu B. A critical review on the impacts of β-glucans on gut microbiota and human health. J Nutr Biochem. 2018 Nov;61:101-110. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.06.010. Epub 2018 Aug 10. PMID: 30196242. Beta-glucans are critical to helping beneficial gut microbiota.
Gluten-free oats β-Glucan-Induced Trained Immunity in Dogs Frontiers in Immunology 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33162983/ Paris S, Chapat L, Pasin M, Lambiel M, Sharrock TE, Shukla R, Sigoillot-Claude C, Bonnet JM, Poulet H, Freyburger L, De Luca K. β-Glucan-Induced Trained Immunity in Dogs. Front Immunol. 2020 Oct 9;11:566893. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.566893. PMID: 33162983; PMCID: PMC7581789. Beta-glucans aided white blood cells and bolstered the immune response.
Gluten-free oats Metabolic variables of obese dogs with insulin resistance supplemented with yeast beta-glucan BMC Veterinary Research 2022 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8722019/ Ferreira CS, Vendramini THA, Amaral AR, et al. Metabolic variables of obese dogs with insulin resistance supplemented with yeast beta-glucan. BMC Vet Res. 2022;18(1):14. Published 2022 Jan 3. doi:10.1186/s12917-021-03106-2 Beta-glucans can help in obesity prevention and treatment.
High antioxidants Carrots Antioxidant supplementation increases retinal responses and decreases refractive error changes in dogs Journal of Nutritional Science 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891559/ Wang, W., Hernandez, J., Moore, C., Jackson, J., & Narfström, K. (2016). Antioxidant supplementation increases retinal responses and decreases refractive error changes in dogs. Journal of Nutritional Science, 5, E18. doi:10.1017/jns.2016.5 Antioxidant supplementation increase retinal responses and decreases refractive error in dogs.
High antioxidants Antioxidant status and biomarkers of oxidative stress in dogs with congestive heart failure Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2005 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16095171/ Freeman LM, Rush JE, Milbury PE, Blumberg JB. Antioxidant status and biomarkers of oxidative stress in dogs with congestive heart failure. J Vet Intern Med. 2005 Jul-Aug;19(4):537-41. doi: 10.1892/0891-6640(2005)19[537:asaboo]2.0.co;2. PMID: 16095171. Low antioxidant status in dogs is a marker of congestive heart failure.
High antioxidants Oxidative Stress in Dog with Heart Failure: The Role of Dietary Fatty Acids and Antioxidants Veterinary Medicine International 2011 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3087355/ Sagols E, Priymenko N. Oxidative stress in dog with heart failure: the role of dietary Fatty acids and antioxidants. Vet Med Int. 2011;2011:180206. Published 2011 Apr 6. doi:10.4061/2011/180206 Oxidative stress is a major factor in canine heart failure.
High antioxidants Antioxidants in the Canine Model of Human Aging Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3291812/ Dowling AL, Head E. Antioxidants in the canine model of human aging. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1822(5):685-689. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.09.020 Oxidative damage leads to neuronal dysfunction and is linked to cognitive dysfunction in aged dogs.
High antioxidants Brain aging in the canine: a diet enriched in antioxidants reduces cognitive dysfunction Neurobiology of Aging 2002 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12392784/ Cotman CW, Head E, Muggenburg BA, Zicker S, Milgram NW. Brain aging in the canine: a diet enriched in antioxidants reduces cognitive dysfunction. Neurobiol Aging. 2002 Sep-Oct;23(5):809-18. doi: 10.1016/s0197-4580(02)00073-8. PMID: 12392784. Antioxidant treatment can prevent oxidative damage impairing cognitive functioning in dogs.
High antioxidants An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results Journal of Veterinary Medicine 2015 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590864/ Sechi S, Chiavolelli F, Spissu N, et al. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results. J Vet Med. 2015;2015:412501. doi:10.1155/2015/412501 Antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs.
High antioxidants Alpha-Lipoic Acid Is an Effective Nutritive Antioxidant for Healthy Adult Dogs Animals 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912130/ Anthony RM, MacLeay JM, Jewell DE, Brejda JJ, Gross KL. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Is an Effective Nutritive Antioxidant for Healthy Adult Dogs. Animals (Basel). 2021;11(2):274. Published 2021 Jan 22. doi:10.3390/ani11020274 Increasing concentrations of alpha-lipoic acid induced a significant increase in the concentrations of intracellular glutathione, an important biomarker of the antioxidant system.
High antioxidants Diabetic Retinopathy, Superoxide Damage and Antioxidants Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3214730/ Santos JM, Mohammad G, Zhong Q, Kowluru RA. Diabetic retinopathy, superoxide damage and antioxidants. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2011;12(3):352-361. doi:10.2174/138920111794480507 Therapies which prevent superoxide accumulation, maintain mitochondrial homeostasis and protect its DNA appear to be the most likely strategies to prevent the development of diabetic retinopathy.
High omega-3 Wild Alaskan salmon oil Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease Journal of Small Animal Practice 2010 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20673293/ Freeman LM. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. J Small Anim Pract. 2010 Sep;51(9):462-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2010.00968.x. Epub 2010 Jul 29. PMID: 20673293. Omega-3s regulate abnormal heart rhythms, increase survival of dogs with heart faulure, reduce blood pressure and heart rate, and more.
High omega-3 Wild Alaskan salmon oil Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. A 12-month, double-blind, controlled study Arthritis and Rheumatism 1994 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8003055/ Geusens P, Wouters C, Nijs J, Jiang Y, Dequeker J. Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. A 12-month, double-blind, controlled study. Arthritis Rheum. 1994 Jun;37(6):824-9. doi: 10.1002/art.1780370608. PMID: 8003055. Omega-3s significantly reduce pain in rheumatoid arthritis.
High omega-3 Wild Alaskan salmon oil Anti-inflammatory Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2002 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12480795/ Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Dec;21(6):495-505. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2002.10719248. PMID: 12480795. Omega-3's anti-inflammatory properties benefits autoimmune diseases like Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and lupus.
High omega-3 Wild Alaskan salmon oil Responses of dogs to dietary omega-3 fatty acids Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2007 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18052798/ Bauer JE. Responses of dogs to dietary omega-3 fatty acids. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007 Dec 1;231(11):1657-61. doi: 10.2460/javma.231.11.1657. PMID: 18052798. Omega-3s from fish oil modify inflammatory and immune responses in dogs. They also improve skin and coat and neurological development in puppies.
High omega-3 Wild Alaskan salmon oil Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on canine atopic dermatitis Journal of Small Animal Practice 2004 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15206474/ Mueller RS, Fieseler KV, Fettman MJ, Zabel S, Rosychuk RA, Ogilvie GK, Greenwalt TL. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on canine atopic dermatitis. J Small Anim Pract. 2004 Jun;45(6):293-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2004.tb00238.x. PMID: 15206474. EPA and DHA reduce symptoms of canine atopic dermatitis.
High omega-3 Wild Alaskan salmon oil Multicenter veterinary practice assessment of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on osteoarthritis in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2010 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20043800/ Roush JK, Dodd CE, Fritsch DA, Allen TA, Jewell DE, Schoenherr WD, Richardson DC, Leventhal PS, Hahn KA. Multicenter veterinary practice assessment of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on osteoarthritis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010 Jan 1;236(1):59-66. doi: 10.2460/javma.236.1.59. Erratum in: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010 Jun 1;236(11):1191. PMID: 20043800. Osteoarthritic dogs fed a diet high in omega-3 walked and played better compared to acontrol.
High omega-3 Effect of an omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid-containing commercial lamb and rice diet on pruritus in atopic dogs: results of a single-blinded study. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 1997 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1189391/ Scott DW, Miller WH Jr, Reinhart GA, Mohammed HO, Bagladi MS. Effect of an omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid-containing commercial lamb and rice diet on pruritus in atopic dogs: results of a single-blinded study. Can J Vet Res. 1997;61(2):145-153. Almost half of all atopic dogs saw their pruritus controlled by a diet rich in omega-3s.
High omega-3 Effects of feeding a high omega-3 fatty acids diet in dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2013 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22805303/ Moreau M, Troncy E, Del Castillo JR, Bédard C, Gauvin D, Lussier B. Effects of feeding a high omega-3 fatty acids diet in dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2013 Oct;97(5):830-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01325.x. Epub 2012 Jul 14. PMID: 22805303. Omega-3 fed dogs saw symptoms of osteoarthritis decrease and improved mobility and general performance.
High omega-3 Protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease stages B2 and C PLoS One 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282066/ Nasciutti PR, Moraes AT, Santos TK, et al. Protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease stages B2 and C. PLoS One. 2021;16(7):e0254887. Published 2021 Jul 15. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0254887 Omega-3 reduce the volumetric overload, and had antiarrhythmic effect in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease.
High omega-3 Effect of Supplementation With Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Magnesium, and Zinc on Canine Behavioral Disorders: Results of a Pilot Study Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30502867/ Rahimi Niyyat M, Azizzadeh M, Khoshnegah J. Effect of Supplementation With Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Magnesium, and Zinc on Canine Behavioral Disorders: Results of a Pilot Study. Top Companion Anim Med. 2018 Dec;33(4):150-155. doi: 10.1053/j.tcam.2018.08.006. Epub 2018 Aug 30. PMID: 30502867. Results of the study reported here support the hypothesis that a combination of omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, and zinc may improve some of the behavioral disorders.
High omega-3 Nutrition and osteoarthritis in dogs: does it help? Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice 2006 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17085237/ Budsberg SC, Bartges JW. Nutrition and osteoarthritis in dogs: does it help? Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2006 Nov;36(6):1307-23, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2006.08.007. PMID: 17085237. Omega-3 may reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and development.
High omega-3 Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology? British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2013 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22765297/ Calder PC. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology? Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Mar;75(3):645-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04374.x. PMID: 22765297; PMCID: PMC3575932. EPA and DHA (types of omega-3 fatty acids) benefit rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and asthma.
Inulin Petfood applications of inulin and oligofructose Journal of Nutrition 1999 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10395620/ Hussein HS, Flickinger EA, Fahey GC Jr. Petfood applications of inulin and oligofructose. J Nutr. 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl):1454S-6S. doi: 10.1093/jn/129.7.1454S. PMID: 10395620. Inulin and oligofructose supplementation reduce gut pathogens and increase beneficial bacteria.
Inulin Pet food and feed applications of inulin, oligofructose and other oligosaccharides British Journal of Nutrition 2002 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12088533/ Flickinger EA, Fahey GC Jr. Pet food and feed applications of inulin, oligofructose and other oligosaccharides. Br J Nutr. 2002 May;87 Suppl 2:S297-300. doi: 10.1079/BJNBJN/2002552. PMID: 12088533. Inulin is a prebiotic that enhances growth and controls pathogenic bacteria in livestock.
Inulin Dietary inulin alters the gut microbiome, enhances systemic metabolism and reduces neuroinflammation in an APOE4 mouse model PLoS One 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6713395/ Hoffman JD, Yanckello LM, Chlipala G, et al. Dietary inulin alters the gut microbiome, enhances systemic metabolism and reduces neuroinflammation in an APOE4 mouse model. PLoS One. 2019;14(8):e0221828. Published 2019 Aug 28. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0221828 Inulin increases beneficial microbiota and decreases harmful microbiota in mice.
Inulin Prebiotic inulin: Useful dietary adjuncts to manipulate the livestock gut microflora Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 2013 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3804171/ Samanta AK, Jayapal N, Senani S, Kolte AP, Sridhar M. Prebiotic inulin: Useful dietary adjuncts to manipulate the livestock gut microflora. Braz J Microbiol. 2013;44(1):1-14. Published 2013 May 7. doi:10.1590/S1517-83822013005000023 Inulin augments gut health and improve livestock vitality.
Inulin The effects of inulin on gut microbial composition: a systematic review of evidence from human studies European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31707507/ Le Bastard Q, Chapelet G, Javaudin F, Lepelletier D, Batard E, Montassier E. The effects of inulin on gut microbial composition: a systematic review of evidence from human studies. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Mar;39(3):403-413. doi: 10.1007/s10096-019-03721-w. Epub 2019 Nov 9. PMID: 31707507. Inulin increased the number of beneficial bacteria in humans, and reduced the abundance of pathogenic bacteria.
Inulin The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs British Journal of Nutrition 2006 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17092385/ Verlinden A, Hesta M, Hermans JM, Janssens GP. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs. Br J Nutr. 2006 Nov;96(5):936-44. doi: 10.1017/bjn20061912. PMID: 17092385. Inulin diets are regarded as hypoallergenic.
Kelp The Hypoglycemic Effect of the Kelp on Diabetes Mellitus Model Induced by Alloxan in Rats International Journal of Molecular Sciencies 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3317716/ Long SH, Yu ZQ, Shuai L, et al. The hypoglycemic effect of the kelp on diabetes mellitus model induced by alloxan in rats. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(3):3354-3365. doi:10.3390/ijms13033354 Kelp may aid recovery of pancreatici islet cells secreting function and reduce blood glucose levels.
Kelp Effects of kelp supplementation on thyroid function in euthyroid subjects Endocrine Practice 2003 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14583417/ Clark CD, Bassett B, Burge MR. Effects of kelp supplementation on thyroid function in euthyroid subjects. Endocr Pract. 2003 Sep-Oct;9(5):363-9. doi: 10.4158/EP.9.5.363. PMID: 14583417. Kelp supplementation increases stimulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Low carb A diet lower in digestible carbohydrate results in lower postprandial glucose concentrations compared with a traditional canine diabetes diet and an adult maintenance diet in healthy dogs Research in Veterinary Science 2012 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21944832/ Elliott KF, Rand JS, Fleeman LM, Morton JM, Litster AL, Biourge VC, Markwell PJ. A diet lower in digestible carbohydrate results in lower postprandial glucose concentrations compared with a traditional canine diabetes diet and an adult maintenance diet in healthy dogs. Res Vet Sci. 2012 Aug;93(1):288-95. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2011.07.032. Epub 2011 Sep 22. PMID: 21944832. Low to moderate carb diets in diabetic dogs improve glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels.
Low carb Effects of diet restriction on life span and age-related changes in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2002 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11991408/ Kealy RD, Lawler DF, Ballam JM, Mantz SL, Biery DN, Greeley EH, Lust G, Segre M, Smith GK, Stowe HD. Effects of diet restriction on life span and age-related changes in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 May 1;220(9):1315-20. doi: 10.2460/javma.2002.220.1315. PMID: 11991408. Dietary restruction increased median life span and delayed the onset signs of chronic disease in dogs.
Low carb Glucose tolerance and related factors in dogs fed diets of suboptimal protein value Diabetes 1967 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6066834/ Vanden Heuvel JP. Diet, fatty acids, and regulation of genes important for heart disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2004 Nov;6(6):432-40. doi: 10.1007/s11883-004-0083-9. PMID: 15485588. Diets low in carbs, high in protein, and moderate fat content can prevent and manage obesity and diabetes in dogs.
Low carb Fresh meat The effects of the proportions of dietary macronutrients on the digestibility, post-prandial endocrine responses and large intestinal fermentation of carbohydrate in working dogs New Zealnad Veterinary Journal 2009 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19966890/ Hill SR, Rutherfurd-Markwick KJ, Ravindran G, Ugarte CE, Thomas DG. The effects of the proportions of dietary macronutrients on the digestibility, post-prandial endocrine responses and large intestinal fermentation of carbohydrate in working dogs. N Z Vet J. 2009 Dec;57(6):313-8. doi: 10.1080/00480169.2009.64718. PMID: 19966890. Low carb, high protein diet slowed glucose release, improved digestibility, and reduced intestinal fermentation in working dogs.
Low carb Fresh meat Increased dietary protein modifies glucose and insulin homeostasis in adult women during weight loss Journal of Nutrition 2003 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12566475/ Layman DK, Shiue H, Sather C, Erickson DJ, Baum J. Increased dietary protein modifies glucose and insulin homeostasis in adult women during weight loss. J Nutr. 2003 Feb;133(2):405-10. doi: 10.1093/jn/133.2.405. PMID: 12566475. Increase in dietary protein and reduced carb/protein reation stabilise bluud glucose levels and reduce postprandial insulin response.
Low carb Fresh meat Thyroid and Lipid Status in Guide Dogs During Training: Effects of Dietary Protein and Fat Content Animals 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769750/ Chiofalo B, Fazio E, Cucinotta S, Cravana C. Thyroid and Lipid Status in Guide Dogs During Training: Effects of Dietary Protein and Fat Content. Animals (Basel). 2019;9(9):597. Published 2019 Aug 23. doi:10.3390/ani9090597 Low, high fat and protein diets best support working dogs ad maintain thyroid health.
Low carb Fresh meat Weight loss in obese dogs: evaluation of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet Journal of Nutrition 2002 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12042493/ Diez M, Nguyen P, Jeusette I, Devois C, Istasse L, Biourge V. Weight loss in obese dogs: evaluation of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. J Nutr. 2002 Jun;132(6 Suppl 2):1685S-7S. doi: 10.1093/jn/132.6.1685S. PMID: 12042493. Low carb, high protein diet improves weight loss in obese dogs.
Low carb Less is more? Ultra-low carbohydrate diet and working dogs' performance PLoS One 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34941910/ Gal A, Cuttance W, Cave N, Lopez-Villalobos N, Herndon A, Giles J, Burchell R. Less is more? Ultra-low carbohydrate diet and working dogs' performance. PLoS One. 2021 Dec 23;16(12):e0261506. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0261506. PMID: 34941910; PMCID: PMC8699952. Working dogs fed an ultra-low carb diet saw lower intestitial glucose concentrations - though activity levels decreased.
Low carb Carbohydrates in the nutrition of the dog Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 1990 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1480633/ Hilton J. Carbohydrates in the nutrition of the dog. Can Vet J. 1990;31(2):128-129. Carbohydrates are critical to dog's diets when supplied in the correct proportions.
Low carb Effects of the Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Ratio on Gut Microbiomes in Dogs of Different Body Conditions mBio 2017 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28119466/ Li Q, Lauber CL, Czarnecki-Maulden G, Pan Y, Hannah SS. Effects of the Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Ratio on Gut Microbiomes in Dogs of Different Body Conditions. mBio. 2017 Jan 24;8(1):e01703-16. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01703-16. PMID: 28119466; PMCID: PMC5263242. The high protein low carb diet-fed dogs showed greater abundances of Firmicutes but fewer numbers of Bacteroidetes than other dogs - potential weight loss strategy.
Low carb Efficacy and safety of a high protein, low carbohydrate diet for weight loss in severely obese adolescents Journal of Pediatrics 2010 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20304413/ Krebs NF, Gao D, Gralla J, Collins JS, Johnson SL. Efficacy and safety of a high protein, low carbohydrate diet for weight loss in severely obese adolescents. J Pediatr. 2010 Aug;157(2):252-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.02.010. Epub 2010 Mar 20. PMID: 20304413; PMCID: PMC2892194. The HPLC diet is a safe and effective option for medically supervised weight loss in severely obese adolescents.
Low carb Nutrition for aging cats and dogs and the importance of body condition Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice 2005 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15833567/ Laflamme DP. Nutrition for aging cats and dogs and the importance of body condition. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2005 May;35(3):713-42. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2004.12.011. PMID: 15833567. High protein low carb diets are suitable for obesity-related conditions like type II diabetes as well as osteoarthritis.
Minimally-processed food Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26068959/ Hooper L, Martin N, Abdelhamid A, Davey Smith G. Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jun 10;(6):CD011737. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011737. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 May 19;5:CD011737. PMID: 26068959. Review: low fats reduce the risk of cancer, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease in people.
Minimally-processed food Fresh meat Evaluation of eight commercial dog diets Journal of Nutritional Science 2014 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4473150/ Daumas C, Paragon BM, Thorin C, et al. Evaluation of eight commercial dog diets. J Nutr Sci. 2014;3:e63. Published 2014 Dec 30. doi:10.1017/jns.2014.65 Commercial dog foods often have low nutritional value and digestibility.
Minimally-processed food Evaluation of nutritional value and microbiological safety in commercial dog food Veterinary Research Communications 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373756/ Kazimierska K, Biel W, Witkowicz R, Karakulska J, Stachurska X. Evaluation of nutritional value and microbiological safety in commercial dog food. Vet Res Commun. 2021;45(2-3):111-128. doi:10.1007/s11259-021-09791-6 Processed commercial dog foods met only minimum mutritional requirements, not optimum levels.
Minimally-processed food Differences in the gut microbiota of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) fed a natural diet or a commercial feed revealed by the Illumina MiSeq platform Gut Pathogens 2017 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5697093/ Kim J, An JU, Kim W, Lee S, Cho S. Differences in the gut microbiota of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) fed a natural diet or a commercial feed revealed by the Illumina MiSeq platform. Gut Pathog. 2017;9:68. Published 2017 Nov 21. doi:10.1186/s13099-017-0218-5 Gut microbiota more diverse and abundant in natural rather than commercial dog food.
Minimally-processed food Food Preferences in Dogs: Effect of Dietary Composition and Intrinsic Variables on Diet Selection Animals 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6562821/ Alegría-Morán RA, Guzmán-Pino SA, Egaña JI, Muñoz C, Figueroa J. Food Preferences in Dogs: Effect of Dietary Composition and Intrinsic Variables on Diet Selection. Animals (Basel). 2019;9(5):219. Published 2019 May 6. doi:10.3390/ani9050219 Dogs adjust their food preferences depend on their characteristics.
Minimally-processed food Pros and Cons of Commercial Pet Foods (Including Grain/Grain Free) for Dogs and Cats Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33773644/ Sanderson SL. Pros and Cons of Commercial Pet Foods (Including Grain/Grain Free) for Dogs and Cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2021 May;51(3):529-550. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2021.01.009. PMID: 33773644. Commercial pet food does not meet the needs of every pet.
Minimally-processed food Preferences of owners of overweight dogs when buying commercial pet food Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2012 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21732995/ Suarez L, Peña C, Carretón E, Juste MC, Bautista-Castaño I, Montoya-Alonso JA. Preferences of owners of overweight dogs when buying commercial pet food. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2012 Aug;96(4):655-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01193.x. Epub 2011 Jul 6. PMID: 21732995. Owners of obese dogs were less likely to care about the quality of ingredients and nutritional composition of dog food.
Minimally-processed food Many Canadian dog and cat foods fail to comply with the guaranteed analyses reported on packages Canadian Veterinary Journal 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30410174/ Burdett SW, Mansilla WD, Shoveller AK. Many Canadian dog and cat foods fail to comply with the guaranteed analyses reported on packages. Can Vet J. 2018 Nov;59(11):1181-1186. PMID: 30410174; PMCID: PMC6190176. Of the 27 foods, 25 met or exceeded the AAFCO nutrient recommendations. Only 9 foods met all nutrient content claims listed in their guaranteed analyses.
Minimally-processed food Mineral Composition of Dry Dog Foods: Impact on Nutrition and Potential Toxicity Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29953228/ Pereira AM, Pinto E, Matos E, Castanheira F, Almeida AA, Baptista CS, Segundo MA, Fonseca AJM, Cabrita ARJ. Mineral Composition of Dry Dog Foods: Impact on Nutrition and Potential Toxicity. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Jul 25;66(29):7822-7830. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b02552. Epub 2018 Jul 11. PMID: 29953228. With the exception of Se, all trace elements were supplied above the nutritional requirements of adult dogs. Legal limits of Cu, Se, and Zn were surpassed.
Minimally-processed food Functional foods in pet nutrition: Focus on dogs and cats Research in Veterinary Science 2017 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28433933/ Di Cerbo A, Morales-Medina JC, Palmieri B, Pezzuto F, Cocco R, Flores G, Iannitti T. Functional foods in pet nutrition: Focus on dogs and cats. Res Vet Sci. 2017 Jun;112:161-166. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.03.020. Epub 2017 Apr 7. PMID: 28433933. Functional foods modify gastrointestinal physiology, promote changes in biochemical parameters, improve brain functions and may reduce or minimize the risk of developing specific pathologies.
Minimally-processed food Natural pet food: a review of natural diets and their impact on canine and feline physiology Journal of Animal Science 2014 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25006071/ Buff PR, Carter RA, Bauer JE, Kersey JH. Natural pet food: a review of natural diets and their impact on canine and feline physiology. J Anim Sci. 2014 Sep;92(9):3781-91. doi: 10.2527/jas.2014-7789. Epub 2014 Jul 8. PMID: 25006071. The inclusion of whole food ingredients in natural pet foods as opposed to fractionated ingredients may result in higher nutrient concentrations, including phytonutrients. Additionally, the processing of commercial pet food can impact digestibility, nutrient bioavailability, and safety, which are particularly important considerations with new product formats in the natural pet food category.
Minimally-processed food Mineral Composition of Cereal and Cereal-Free Dry Dog Foods versus Nutritional Guidelines Molecules 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33172044/ Kazimierska K, Biel W, Witkowicz R. Mineral Composition of Cereal and Cereal-Free Dry Dog Foods versus Nutritional Guidelines. Molecules. 2020 Nov 6;25(21):5173. doi: 10.3390/molecules25215173. PMID: 33172044; PMCID: PMC7664208. Eighteen tested dog foods (60%) did not meet at least one recommendation of nutritional guidelines. Four dog foods exceeded the legal limit of Fe and five foods exceeded the legal limit of Zn; in one of them, Zn level was almost twice higher.
Minimally-processed food True nutrient and amino acid digestibility of dog foods made with human-grade ingredients using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay Translational Animal Science 2019 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32705002/ Oba PM, Utterback PL, Parsons CM, Swanson KS. True nutrient and amino acid digestibility of dog foods made with human-grade ingredients using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Transl Anim Sci. 2019 Dec 6;4(1):442-451. doi: 10.1093/tas/txz175. PMID: 32705002; PMCID: PMC6994059. Human-grade pet foods are highly digestible and suitable for canine nutrition.
Minimally-processed food Assessment of the nutritional adequacy of pet foods through the life cycle Journal of Nutrition 1994 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7996231/ Morris JG, Rogers QR. Assessment of the nutritional adequacy of pet foods through the life cycle. J Nutr. 1994 Dec;124(12 Suppl):2520S-2534S. doi: 10.1093/jn/124.suppl_12.2520S. PMID: 7996231. Claims of nutritional adequacy of pet foods based on the current Association of American Feed Control Official (AAFCO) nutrient allowances ("profiles") do not give assurances of nutritional adequacy
Minimally-processed food Protein and amino acid bioavailability estimates for canine foods Journal of Animal Science 2015 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26523572/ Hendriks WH, Bakker EJ, Bosch G. Protein and amino acid bioavailability estimates for canine foods. J Anim Sci. 2015 Oct;93(10):4788-95. doi: 10.2527/jas.2015-9231. PMID: 26523572. Several commercial pet foods had amino acid bioavailablity below the realistic nutrient allowance estimates.
No peas or legumes Investigation of diets associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs using foodomics analysis Scientific Reports 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34354102/ Smith CE, Parnell LD, Lai CQ, Rush JE, Freeman LM. Investigation of diets associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs using foodomics analysis. Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 5;11(1):15881. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-94464-2. PMID: 34354102; PMCID: PMC8342479. Peas and legums had the highest concentrations of 3P/FDA - a compound associated with canine dilated cardiomyopathy.
No peas or legumes Special topic: The association between pulse ingredients and canine dilated cardiomyopathy: addressing the knowledge gaps before establishing causation Journal of Animal Science 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396252/ Mansilla WD, Marinangeli CPF, Ekenstedt KJ, et al. Special topic: The association between pulse ingredients and canine dilated cardiomyopathy: addressing the knowledge gaps before establishing causation. J Anim Sci. 2019;97(3):983-997. doi:10.1093/jas/sky488 Food and Drug Administration warned about a possible relationship between dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs and the consumption of dog food formulated with potatoes and pulse ingredients.
No peas or legumes Consumption of nuts and legumes and risk of incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2014 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24898241/ Afshin A, Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Mozaffarian D. Consumption of nuts and legumes and risk of incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul;100(1):278-88. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.076901. Epub 2014 Jun 4. PMID: 24898241; PMCID: PMC4144102. This systematic review supports inverse associations between eating nuts and incident IHD and diabetes and eating legumes and incident IHD.
No peas or legumes Minimally-processed food Fresh meat Nutritional inadequacies in commercial vegan foods for dogs and cats PLoS One 2020 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6968870/ Zafalon RVA, Risolia LW, Vendramini THA, et al. Nutritional inadequacies in commercial vegan foods for dogs and cats. PLoS One. 2020;15(1):e0227046. Published 2020 Jan 17. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0227046 All foods analyzed had one or more nutrients below the recommended levels and some presented zinc and copper excess, therefore, these foods should not be recommended for dogs and cats.
Probiotics The Role of the Canine Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in Health and Gastrointestinal Disease Frontiers in Veterinary Science 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31993446/ Pilla R, Suchodolski JS. The Role of the Canine Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in Health and Gastrointestinal Disease. Front Vet Sci. 2020 Jan 14;6:498. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00498. PMID: 31993446; PMCID: PMC6971114. Gut microbiome is critical to a the immune systema and systemic health.
Probiotics The Gut Microbiome of Dogs and Cats, and the Influence of Diet The Veterinary Clinical of North America. Small Animal Practice 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33653538/ Pilla R, Suchodolski JS. The Gut Microbiome of Dogs and Cats, and the Influence of Diet. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2021 May;51(3):605-621. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Feb 27. PMID: 33653538. Probiotics and prebiotics can improve microbial diversity and normalise metabolism in diseased dogs.
Probiotics The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs PLoS One 2014 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24421875/ Rodrigues Hoffmann A, Patterson AP, Diesel A, Lawhon SD, Ly HJ, Elkins Stephenson C, Mansell J, Steiner JM, Dowd SE, Olivry T, Suchodolski JS. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 8;9(1):e83197. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083197. PMID: 24421875; PMCID: PMC3885435. The skin microbiome has a lower species richness in allergic dogs than healthy dogs.
Probiotics Mechanisms of action of probiotics Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18181730/ Walker WA. Mechanisms of action of probiotics. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 1;46 Suppl 2:S87-91; discussion S144-51. doi: 10.1086/523335. PMID: 18181730. Probiotics reduce levels of IgE - a key indicator of allergy found in dogs.
Probiotics Early exposure to probiotics in a canine model of atopic dermatitis has long-term clinical and immunological effects Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 2012 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22436376/ Marsella R, Santoro D, Ahrens K. Early exposure to probiotics in a canine model of atopic dermatitis has long-term clinical and immunological effects. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012 Apr 15;146(2):185-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.02.013. Epub 2012 Mar 1. PMID: 22436376. Early exposure to probiotics deceased allergen-specific IgE.
Probiotics Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG for the prevention of atopic dermatitis in dogs American Journal of Veterinary Research 2009 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19496662/ Marsella R. Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG for the prevention of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2009 Jun;70(6):735-40. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.70.6.735. PMID: 19496662. Beagle puppies exposure to probiotics had significantly less allergic markers.
Probiotics Impact of Nutritional Supplementation on Canine Dermatological Disorders Veterinary Sciences 2020 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32260299/ Marchegiani A, Fruganti A, Spaterna A, Dalle Vedove E, Bachetti B, Massimini M, Di Pierro F, Gavazza A, Cerquetella M. Impact of Nutritional Supplementation on Canine Dermatological Disorders. Vet Sci. 2020 Apr 3;7(2):38. doi: 10.3390/vetsci7020038. PMID: 32260299; PMCID: PMC7355824. Lactobacillus and Enterococcus are theorised to alter the immune cell response, stopping the allergic overreaction.
Probiotics Microbiota and probiotics in canine and feline welfare Anaerobe 2015 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7111060/#bib5 Grześkowiak Ł, Endo A, Beasley S, Salminen S. Microbiota and probiotics in canine and feline welfare. Anaerobe. 2015;34:14-23. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2015.04.002 Healthy dogs did not show any negative GI or immune system effects form probiotic supplementation
Probiotics Preliminary evaluation of probiotic effects on gastrointestinal signs in dogs with multicentric lymphoma undergoing multi‐agent chemotherapy: A randomised, placebo‐controlled study Vet Record Open 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109851/ Jugan, Maria C et al. “Preliminary evaluation of probiotic effects on gastrointestinal signs in dogs with multicentric lymphoma undergoing multi-agent chemotherapy: A randomised, placebo-controlled study.” Veterinary record open vol. 8,1 e2. 29 Mar. 2021, doi:10.1002/vro2.2 Decrease in GI dysbiosis and diarrhea in dogs receiving probiotics.
Probiotics Role of gut microbiota in dog and cat’s health and diseases Open Veterinary Journal 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6794400/ Mondo E, Marliani G, Accorsi PA, Cocchi M, Di Leone A. Role of gut microbiota in dog and cat's health and diseases. Open Vet J. 2019;9(3):253-258. doi:10.4314/ovj.v9i3.10 GI microbiota critical for health and physiological functioning.
Probiotics Oral Administration of Compound Probiotics Improved Canine Feed Intake, Weight Gain, Immunity and Intestinal Microbiota Frontiers in Immunology 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454072/ Xu H, Huang W, Hou Q, et al. Oral Administration of Compound Probiotics Improved Canine Feed Intake, Weight Gain, Immunity and Intestinal Microbiota. Front Immunol. 2019;10:666. Published 2019 Apr 2. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.00666 Probiotic treatments in elderly dogs shifted gut bacteria towards a younger looking composition.
Probiotics Clinical effect of probiotics in prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal disease in dogs: A systematic review Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6766488/ Jensen AP, Bjørnvad CR. Clinical effect of probiotics in prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal disease in dogs: A systematic review. J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(5):1849-1864. doi:10.1111/jvim.15554 Probiotics and diet help minimise GI disease.
Probiotics Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain DSM13241 in healthy adult dogs American Journal of Veterinary Research 2004 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15027683/ Baillon ML, Marshall-Jones ZV, Butterwick RF. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain DSM13241 in healthy adult dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2004 Mar;65(3):338-43. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.2004.65.338. PMID: 15027683. Lactobacillus can enhance intestinal health and improve immune function in dogs.
Probiotics Characterization and Functional Test of Canine Probiotics Frontiers in Microbiology 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982664/ Jang HJ, Son S, Kim JA, et al. Characterization and Functional Test of Canine Probiotics. Front Microbiol. 2021;12:625562. Published 2021 Mar 8. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.625562 Byproducts of probiotic bacteria in crease the visbility and decreased oxidative stress in mouse and dog cells.
Probiotics Probiotic characterization of Lactobacillus isolates from canine faeces Journal of Applied Microbiology 2019 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30614169/ Coman MM, Verdenelli MC, Cecchini C, Belà B, Gramenzi A, Orpianesi C, Cresci A, Silvi S. Probiotic characterization of Lactobacillus isolates from canine faeces. J Appl Microbiol. 2019 Apr;126(4):1245-1256. doi: 10.1111/jam.14197. Epub 2019 Feb 18. PMID: 30614169. Lactobacillus strain amongst the best probiotics for dogs.
Probiotics The effect of an oral probiotic containing lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, and bacillus species on the vaginal microbiota of spayed female dogs Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2013 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24033665/ Hutchins RG, Bailey CS, Jacob ME, Harris TL, Wood MW, Saker KE, Vaden SL. The effect of an oral probiotic containing lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, and bacillus species on the vaginal microbiota of spayed female dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2013 Nov-Dec;27(6):1368-71. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12174. Epub 2013 Aug 28. PMID: 24033665.
Probiotics Inulin The microbiota of healthy dogs demonstrates individualized responses to synbiotic supplementation in a randomized controlled trial Animal Microbiome 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33971985/ Tanprasertsuk J, Jha AR, Shmalberg J, Jones RB, Perry LM, Maughan H, Honaker RW. The microbiota of healthy dogs demonstrates individualized responses to synbiotic supplementation in a randomized controlled trial. Anim Microbiome. 2021 May 10;3(1):36. doi: 10.1186/s42523-021-00098-0. PMID: 33971985; PMCID: PMC8111948. Probiotics led to a lower incidence in diarrhea and a change in gut microbial community.
Probiotics Probiotics in animal nutrition and health Beneficial Microbes 2010 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21840795/ Chaucheyras-Durand F, Durand H. Probiotics in animal nutrition and health. Benef Microbes. 2010 Mar;1(1):3-9. doi: 10.3920/BM2008.1002. PMID: 21840795. Probiotic used in livestock improved gut health and microbiota.
Probiotics Probiotic Bacteria Induce a ‘Glow of Health’ PLoS One 2013 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3547054/ Levkovich T, Poutahidis T, Smillie C, et al. Probiotic bacteria induce a 'glow of health'. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53867. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053867 Aged male animals eating probiotics exhibited increased subcuticular folliculogenesis, yielding luxuriant fur only in probiotic-fed subjects. Female animals displayed probiotic-induced hyperacidity coinciding with shinier hair.
Probiotics Bacteriological evaluation of dog and cat diets that claim to contain probiotics Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 2003 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC340078/ Weese JS, Arroyo L. Bacteriological evaluation of dog and cat diets that claim to contain probiotics. Can Vet J. 2003;44(3):212-216. Products claiming "probiotics" often see no relevant bacterial growth - inaccurate labels relative to actual contents.
Probiotics Effects of probiotic bacteria in dogs with food responsive diarrhoea treated with an elimination diet Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2006 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16867072/ Sauter SN, Benyacoub J, Allenspach K, Gaschen F, Ontsouka E, Reuteler G, Cavadini C, Knorr R, Blum JW. Effects of probiotic bacteria in dogs with food responsive diarrhoea treated with an elimination diet. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2006 Aug;90(7-8):269-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2005.00595.x. PMID: 16867072. All dogs clinically improved after probiotic treatment, but cytokine patterns were not associated with the clinical features irrespective of the dietary supplementation.
Probiotics Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) on the nutritional and health status of boxer dogs The Veterinary Record 2020 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7456698/ Marelli SP, Fusi E, Giardini A, et al. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) on the nutritional and health status of boxer dogs. Vet Rec. 2020;187(4):e28. doi:10.1136/vr.105434 Supplementation of L acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) significantly improved the nutritional status and faecal parameters of dogs.
Probiotics Evidence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Intestinal Chronic Diseases Nutrients 2017 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5490534/ Plaza-Díaz J, Ruiz-Ojeda FJ, Vilchez-Padial LM, Gil A. Evidence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Intestinal Chronic Diseases. Nutrients. 2017;9(6):555. Published 2017 May 28. doi:10.3390/nu9060555 Review: Probiotic administration improved the clinical symptoms, histological alterations, and mucus production in most of the evaluated animal studies.
Probiotics The Genus Enterococcus: Between Probiotic Potential and Safety Concerns—An Update Frontiers in Microbiology 2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085487/ Hanchi H, Mottawea W, Sebei K, Hammami R. The Genus Enterococcus: Between Probiotic Potential and Safety Concerns-An Update. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:1791. Published 2018 Aug 3. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.01791 Review: Several probiotic species are widely considered beneficial. Safety concerns prevent Enterococcus from being included - though there is potential for development.
Probiotics A Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled-Trial of a Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus sakei Probio-65 for the Prevention of Canine Atopic Dermatitis Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 2015 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26282691/ Kim H, Rather IA, Kim H, Kim S, Kim T, Jang J, Seo J, Lim J, Park YH. A Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled-Trial of a Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus sakei Probio-65 for the Prevention of Canine Atopic Dermatitis. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015 Nov;25(11):1966-9. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1506.06065. PMID: 26282691. Administration of probiotic Lactobacillu sakei probio-65 reduced disease severity for canine atopic dermatitis.
Probiotics Probiotic Potential of a Lactobacillus Bacterium of Canine Faecal-Origin and Its Impact on Select Gut Health Indices and Immune Response of Dogs Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins 2017 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28188477/ Kumar S, Pattanaik AK, Sharma S, Jadhav SE, Dutta N, Kumar A. Probiotic Potential of a Lactobacillus Bacterium of Canine Faecal-Origin and Its Impact on Select Gut Health Indices and Immune Response of Dogs. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2017 Sep;9(3):262-277. doi: 10.1007/s12602-017-9256-z. PMID: 28188477. Novel probiotics are being developed for use in pet nutrition programs.
Pumpkin High antioxidants Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer Food Chemistry 2012 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22868114/ Oloyede FM, Agbaje GO, Obuotor EM, Obisesan IO. Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer. Food Chem. 2012 Nov 15;135(2):460-3. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.124. Epub 2012 Apr 30. PMID: 22868114. Pumpkins are a potent source of antioxidants.
Pumpkin Biochemical, nutritional and functional properties of protein isolate and fractions from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata var. Kashi Harit) seeds Food Chemistry 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33002826/ Vinayashree S, Vasu P. Biochemical, nutritional and functional properties of protein isolate and fractions from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata var. Kashi Harit) seeds. Food Chem. 2021 Mar 15;340:128177. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128177. Epub 2020 Sep 24. PMID: 33002826. Pumpkin seeds contain all essential amino acids except lysine and threonine.
Pumpkin Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil Tropical Animal Health and Production 2013 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22684690/ Feitosa TF, Vilela VL, Athayde AC, Braga FR, Dantas ES, Vieira VD, de Melo LR. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2013 Jan;45(1):123-7. doi: 10.1007/s11250-012-0182-5. Epub 2012 Jun 9. PMID: 22684690. Pumpkin seeds decrease GI helminiths in ostriches.
Pumpkin Medicinal and biological potential of pumpkin: an updated review Nutrition Research Reviews 2010 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21110905/ Yadav M, Jain S, Tomar R, Prasad GB, Yadav H. Medicinal and biological potential of pumpkin: an updated review. Nutr Res Rev. 2010 Dec;23(2):184-90. doi: 10.1017/S0954422410000107. PMID: 21110905. Pumpkin contains several phyto-constituents belonging to the categories of alkaloids, flavonoids, and palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Various important medicinal properties including anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and others have been well documented.
Pumpkin Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil Journal of Medical Food 2012 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22082068/ El-Mosallamy AE, Sleem AA, Abdel-Salam OM, Shaffie N, Kenawy SA. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil. J Med Food. 2012 Feb;15(2):180-9. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2010.0299. Epub 2011 Nov 14. PMID: 22082068. Pumpkin seed oil lowers blood pressure and is cardioprotective.
Pumpkin Pumpkin Waste as Livestock Feed: Impact on Nutrition and Animal Health and on Quality of Meat, Milk, and Egg Animals 2019 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31597395/ Valdez-Arjona LP, Ramírez-Mella M. Pumpkin Waste as Livestock Feed: Impact on Nutrition and Animal Health and on Quality of Meat, Milk, and Egg. Animals (Basel). 2019 Oct 8;9(10):769. doi: 10.3390/ani9100769. PMID: 31597395; PMCID: PMC6826842. Pumpkin could enhance animal health and vitality in livestock.
Pumpkin Biochemical proximates of pumpkin (Cucurbitaeae spp.) and their beneficial effects on the general well-being of poultry species Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28158900/ Achilonu MC, Nwafor IC, Umesiobi DO, Sedibe MM. Biochemical proximates of pumpkin (Cucurbitaeae spp.) and their beneficial effects on the general well-being of poultry species. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2018 Feb;102(1):5-16. doi: 10.1111/jpn.12654. Epub 2017 Feb 3. PMID: 28158900. Pumpkin seed extract is reported to be useful for immunomodulation, reproductive health, therapeutics over a wide range of disease conditions and stimulates metabolism of accumulated fats.
Pumpkin Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity and Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Extracts—In Vitro and in Vivo Studies International Journal of Molecular Sciencies 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037735/ Grzybek M, Kukula-Koch W, Strachecka A, et al. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity and Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Extracts-In Vitro and in Vivo Studies. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(9):1456. Published 2016 Sep 1. doi:10.3390/ijms17091456 Pumpkin seed extracts may be used to control of Gastrointestinal (G.I.) nematode infections.
Pumpkin Health benefits of traditional corn, beans, and pumpkin: in vitro studies for hyperglycemia and hypertension management Journal of Medicinal Food 2007 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17651062/ Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Kim YC, Shetty K. Health benefits of traditional corn, beans, and pumpkin: in vitro studies for hyperglycemia and hypertension management. J Med Food. 2007 Jun;10(2):266-75. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2006.234. PMID: 17651062. Pumpkins recommended alternative to sugar, with high total phenolics and moderate antioxidant activity.
Seaweed Risks and benefits of consuming edible seaweeds Nutrition Reviews 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6551690/ Cherry P, O'Hara C, Magee PJ, McSorley EM, Allsopp PJ. Risks and benefits of consuming edible seaweeds. Nutr Rev. 2019;77(5):307-329. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuy066 Seaweeds are functional foods alleviate risk factors for numerous chronic diseases
Seaweed Potential benefits of dietary seaweeds as protection against COVID-19 Nutrition Reviews 2020 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798825/ Tamama K. Potential benefits of dietary seaweeds as protection against COVID-19. Nutr Rev. 2021;79(7):814-823. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuaa126 Dietary seaweed contain numerous components, including ACE inhibitory peptides, soluble dietary fibers (eg, fucoidan, porphyran), omega-3 fatty acids, fucoxanthin, fucosterol, vitamins D3 and B12, and phlorotannins. These components exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral effects directly as well as indirectly through prebiotic effects.
Seaweed Melanoma and brown seaweed: an integrative hypothesis Journal of Applied Phycology 2017 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5387006/ Teas J, Irhimeh MR. Melanoma and brown seaweed: an integrative hypothesis. J Appl Phycol. 2017;29(2):941-948. doi:10.1007/s10811-016-0979-0 Seaweeds may be protective against melanoma.
Seaweed Antiviral Effects of Polyphenols from Marine Algae Biomedicines 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921925/ Besednova NN, Andryukov BG, Zaporozhets TS, et al. Antiviral Effects of Polyphenols from Marine Algae. Biomedicines. 2021;9(2):200. Published 2021 Feb 17. doi:10.3390/biomedicines9020200 Polyphenolic compounds found in seaweed can be highly antiviral.
Seaweed The Use of Oligo Fucoidan in Cancer Bearing Dogs Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Double-Blinded Study Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 2022 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34864255/ Post GS, Lustgarten J. The Use of Oligo Fucoidan in Cancer Bearing Dogs Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Double-Blinded Study. Top Companion Anim Med. 2022 Jan-Feb;46:100616. doi: 10.1016/j.tcam.2021.100616. Epub 2021 Dec 2. PMID: 34864255. Oligo fucoidan derived by from oceanic brown seaweed improve quality of life in dogs being treated with chemotherapy for cancer.
Seaweed Seaweed Supplementation Failed to Affect Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome as Well as Fecal IgA and Apparent Nutrient Digestibility in Adult Dogs Animals 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8388444/ Pinna C, Vecchiato CG, Grandi M, Stefanelli C, Zannoni A, Biagi G. Seaweed Supplementation Failed to Affect Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome as Well as Fecal IgA and Apparent Nutrient Digestibility in Adult Dogs. Animals (Basel). 2021;11(8):2234. Published 2021 Jul 29. doi:10.3390/ani11082234 Seaweeds' indigestible polysaccharides have strong prebiotic properties.
Seaweed Kelp Nutritional value of edible seaweeds Nutrition Reviews 2007 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18236692/ MacArtain P, Gill CI, Brooks M, Campbell R, Rowland IR. Nutritional value of edible seaweeds. Nutr Rev. 2007 Dec;65(12 Pt 1):535-43. doi: 10.1301/nr.2007.dec.535-543. PMID: 18236692. Overview of nutritional value of seaweeds.
Seaweed The Seaweed Diet in Prevention and Treatment of the Neurodegenerative Diseases Marine Drugs 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996752/ Pereira L, Valado A. The Seaweed Diet in Prevention and Treatment of the Neurodegenerative Diseases. Mar Drugs. 2021;19(3):128. Published 2021 Feb 26. doi:10.3390/md19030128 Nutritional profile of seaweeds useful in prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Seaweed Impact of seaweed intake on health European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32908248/ Murai U, Yamagishi K, Kishida R, Iso H. Impact of seaweed intake on health. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2021 Jun;75(6):877-889. doi: 10.1038/s41430-020-00739-8. Epub 2020 Sep 9. Erratum in: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020 Oct 15;: PMID: 32908248. Seaweeds contain minerals, vitamins, soluble dietary fibers, and flavonoids, which are regarded as preventive agents against lifestyle-related diseases.
Seaweed Nutritional and digestive health benefits of seaweed Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 2011 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22054935/ Rajapakse N, Kim SK. Nutritional and digestive health benefits of seaweed. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2011;64:17-28. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-387669-0.00002-8. PMID: 22054935. Seaweed is rich in some health-promoting molecules and materials such as, dietary fiber, ω-3 fatty acids, essential amino acids, and vitamins A, B, C, and E.
Taurine Taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy in golden retrievers fed commercial diets PLoS One 2018 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30543707/ Kaplan JL, Stern JA, Fascetti AJ, Larsen JA, Skolnik H, Peddle GD, Kienle RD, Waxman A, Cocchiaro M, Gunther-Harrington CT, Klose T, LaFauci K, Lefbom B, Machen Lamy M, Malakoff R, Nishimura S, Oldach M, Rosenthal S, Stauthammer C, O'Sullivan L, Visser LC, Williams R, Ontiveros E. Taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy in golden retrievers fed commercial diets. PLoS One. 2018 Dec 13;13(12):e0209112. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209112. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2018 Dec 31;13(12):e0210233. PMID: 30543707; PMCID: PMC6292607. Dogs with taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy saw significant improvement with taurine supplementation.
Taurine Carrots Fresh chicken Clinical Findings in Healthy Dogs Fed With Diets Characterized by Different Carbohydrates Sources Frontiers in Veterinary Science 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100497/ Gizzarelli M, Calabrò S, Vastolo A, Molinaro G, Balestrino I, Cutrignelli MI. Clinical Findings in Healthy Dogs Fed With Diets Characterized by Different Carbohydrates Sources. Front Vet Sci. 2021;8:667318. Published 2021 Apr 22. doi:10.3389/fvets.2021.667318 Source of carbohydrates affected blood MHCH and platelets - no effect in taurine levels.
Taurine Taurine and carnitine in canine cardiomyopathy Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice 2006 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17085238/ Sanderson SL. Taurine and carnitine in canine cardiomyopathy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2006 Nov;36(6):1325-43, vii-viii. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2006.08.010. PMID: 17085238. Tauricine deficiency is a significant problem in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
Taurine Evaluation of the taurine concentrations in dog plasma and aqueous humour: a pilot study Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2013 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23392931/ Rosolen SG, Neveux N, Sahel JA, Picaud S, Froger N. Evaluation of the taurine concentrations in dog plasma and aqueous humour: a pilot study. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;775:145-54. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6130-2_12. PMID: 23392931. Taurine essential for photoreceptor survival in the eye.
Taurine Review of canine dilated cardiomyopathy in the wake of diet-associated concerns Journal of Animal Science 2020 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7447921/ McCauley SR, Clark SD, Quest BW, Streeter RM, Oxford EM. Review of canine dilated cardiomyopathy in the wake of diet-associated concerns [published correction appears in J Anim Sci. 2020 Jul 1;98(7):]. J Anim Sci. 2020;98(6):skaa155. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa155 Taurine deficiency should be a major dietary concern in DCM.
Taurine The Role of Taurine in Mitochondria Health: More Than Just an Antioxidant Molecules 2021 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400259/ Jong CJ, Sandal P, Schaffer SW. The Role of Taurine in Mitochondria Health: More Than Just an Antioxidant. Molecules. 2021;26(16):4913. Published 2021 Aug 13. doi:10.3390/molecules26164913 Taurine supplementation protects against pathologies associated with mitochondrial defects, such as aging, mitochondrial diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders.
Taurine Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid Molecular Vision 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501277/ Ripps H, Shen W. Review: taurine: a "very essential" amino acid. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2673-2686. Taurine is pivotal to the health and survival of ocular tissues - also one of the most essential substances in the body.
Taurine Prospective study of dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs eating nontraditional or traditional diets and in dogs with subclinical cardiac abnormalities Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2022 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8965249/ Freeman L, Rush J, Adin D, et al. Prospective study of dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs eating nontraditional or traditional diets and in dogs with subclinical cardiac abnormalities. J Vet Intern Med. 2022;36(2):451-463. doi:10.1111/jvim.16397 Taurine deficiency is a possible caused of diet-associated dilated cardiomyopathy.
Taurine Effects of different carbohydrate sources on taurine status in healthy Beagle dogs Journal of Animal Science 2020 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7007769/ Pezzali JG, Acuff HL, Henry W, Alexander C, Swanson KS, Aldrich CG. Effects of different carbohydrate sources on taurine status in healthy Beagle dogs. J Anim Sci. 2020;98(2):skaa010. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa010 Different carbohydrate sources do not affect taurine status in dogs.
Taurine The potential health benefits of taurine in cardiovascular disease Experimental & Clinical Cardiology 2008 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2586397/ Xu YJ, Arneja AS, Tappia PS, Dhalla NS. The potential health benefits of taurine in cardiovascular disease. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2008;13(2):57-65. Taurine has beneficial effects in in congestive heart failure, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis and diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Taurine Minimally-processed food Fresh chicken Taurine status in normal dogs fed a commercial diet associated with taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2003 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14507418/ Tôrres CL, Backus RC, Fascetti AJ, Rogers QR. Taurine status in normal dogs fed a commercial diet associated with taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2003 Oct;87(9-10):359-72. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0396.2003.00446.x. PMID: 14507418. Chicken is greater for taurine bioavailability compared to lamb-meal.
Taurine Minimally-processed food Taurine deficiency in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy: 12 cases (1997-2001) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2003 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14584743/ Fascetti AJ, Reed JR, Rogers QR, Backus RC. Taurine deficiency in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy: 12 cases (1997-2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003 Oct 15;223(8):1137-41. doi: 10.2460/javma.2003.223.1137. PMID: 14584743. Certain commercial diet associated with low taurine concentrations and DCM in dogs. Taurine supplementation increases survival times in such dogs.
Taurine Differences in taurine synthesis rate among dogs relate to differences in their maintenance energy requirement Journal of Nutrition 2007 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17449577/ Ko KS, Backus RC, Berg JR, Lame MW, Rogers QR. Differences in taurine synthesis rate among dogs relate to differences in their maintenance energy requirement. J Nutr. 2007 May;137(5):1171-5. doi: 10.1093/jn/137.5.1171. PMID: 17449577. Taurine insufficiency is greater in bigger dogs due to differences in taurine biosynthesis rate.
Taurine Plasma taurine concentrations in normal dogs and in dogs with heart disease Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 1995 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8523322/ Kramer GA, Kittleson MD, Fox PR, Lewis J, Pion PD. Plasma taurine concentrations in normal dogs and in dogs with heart disease. J Vet Intern Med. 1995 Jul-Aug;9(4):253-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.1995.tb01076.x. PMID: 8523322. Low taurine and DCM may be specifically associated with Cocker Spaniels or Golden Retrievers.
Taurine Longitudinal assessment of taurine and amino acid concentrations in dogs fed a green lentil diet Journal of Animal Science 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34747447/ Reilly LM, He F, Clark L, de Godoy MRC. Longitudinal assessment of taurine and amino acid concentrations in dogs fed a green lentil diet. J Anim Sci. 2021 Nov 1;99(11):skab315. doi: 10.1093/jas/skab315. PMID: 34747447; PMCID: PMC8763241. Taurine deficiencies can cause serious issues; however, green lentils do not cause a lower blood concentration of taurine.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil Evaluation of cognitive learning, memory, psychomotor, immunologic, and retinal functions in healthy puppies fed foods fortified with docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil from 8 to 52 weeks of age Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2012 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22916855/ Zicker SC, Jewell DE, Yamka RM, Milgram NW. Evaluation of cognitive learning, memory, psychomotor, immunologic, and retinal functions in healthy puppies fed foods fortified with docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil from 8 to 52 weeks of age. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012 Sep 1;241(5):583-94. doi: 10.2460/javma.241.5.583. PMID: 22916855. Puppies receiving high-DHA food were better at task learning, visual contrast discrimination, and early psychomotor performance (salmon oil is high in DHA).
Wild Alaskan salmon oil Docosahexaenoic acid and neurologic development in animals Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2006 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16506930/ Heinemann KM, Bauer JE. Docosahexaenoic acid and neurologic development in animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006 Mar 1;228(5):700-5, 655. doi: 10.2460/javma.228.5.700. PMID: 16506930. DHA improved memory and learning skills in young dogs.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil High omega-3 Dose-titration effects of fish oil in osteoarthritic dogs Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2010 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20707845/ Fritsch D, Allen TA, Dodd CE, Jewell DE, Sixby KA, Leventhal PS, Hahn KA. Dose-titration effects of fish oil in osteoarthritic dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2010 Sep-Oct;24(5):1020-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0572.x. Epub 2010 Aug 12. Erratum in: J Vet Intern Med. 2011 Jan-Feb;25(1):167. PMID: 20707845. Fish oil high in EPA and DHA reduced lameness and slowed the progression of ostearthritis in dogs.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil High omega-4 Evaluation of the effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2010 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20043801/ Roush JK, Cross AR, Renberg WC, Dodd CE, Sixby KA, Fritsch DA, Allen TA, Jewell DE, Richardson DC, Leventhal PS, Hahn KA. Evaluation of the effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010 Jan 1;236(1):67-73. doi: 10.2460/javma.236.1.67. PMID: 20043801. Fish oil omega-3 fattty acids improved weight-bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil Biological effects of short-term salmon oil administration, using distinct salmon oil sources in healthy dogs Journal of Small Animal Practice 2012 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23173908/ Hesta M, Verbrugghe A, Gulbrandsen KE, Christophe A, Zentek J, Hellweg P, Janssens GP. Biological effects of short-term salmon oil administration, using distinct salmon oil sources in healthy dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2012 Dec;53(12):699-704. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2012.12000.x. PMID: 23173908. Low-dose salmon oil altered serum phospholipid fatty acid profile in two weeks.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil High omega-3 A treatment study of canine symmetrical onychomadesis (symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy) comparing fish oil and cyclosporine supplementation in addition to a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2014 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4189663/ Ziener ML, Nødtvedt A. A treatment study of canine symmetrical onychomadesis (symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy) comparing fish oil and cyclosporine supplementation in addition to a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Acta Vet Scand. 2014;56(1):66. Published 2014 Oct 4. doi:10.1186/s13028-014-0066-y Fish oil equally effective as cyclosporine in trated symmetrical onchyomadesis.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil Fish oil supplementation increases concentration of adiponectin in healthy dogs Journal of Small Animal Practice 2014 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24611954/ Mazaki-Tovi M, Abood SK, Schenck PA. Fish oil supplementation increases concentration of adiponectin in healthy dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2014 May;55(5):247-53. doi: 10.1111/jsap.12194. Epub 2014 Feb 25. PMID: 24611954. Fish oil supplementation significantly increased circulating concentration of adiponectin in healthy non-obese dogs.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil Effect of Long-Term Fish Oil Supplementation on Semen Quality and Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Male Dogs International Journal of Fertility and Sterility 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4948075/ Risso A, Pellegrino FJ, Relling AE, Corrada Y. Effect of Long-Term Fish Oil Supplementation on Semen Quality and Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Male Dogs. Int J Fertil Steril. 2016;10(2):223-231. doi:10.22074/ijfs.2016.4913 Long-term fish oil supplementation increases semen quality and testosterone concentrations in dogs.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil Nutritional alterations and the effect of fish oil supplementation in dogs with heart failure Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 1998 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9857337/ Freeman LM, Rush JE, Kehayias JJ, Ross JN Jr, Meydani SN, Brown DJ, Dolnikowski GG, Marmor BN, White ME, Dinarello CA, Roubenoff R. Nutritional alterations and the effect of fish oil supplementation in dogs with heart failure. J Vet Intern Med. 1998 Nov-Dec;12(6):440-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.1998.tb02148.x. PMID: 9857337. Fish oil supplementation decreased IL-1 concentrations and improved cachexia in canine heart failure - reductions in IL-1 predicted survival.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil Minimally-processed food Serum lipidome analysis of healthy beagle dogs receiving different diets Metabolomics 2019 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31797205/ Boretti FS, Burla B, Deuel J, Gao L, Wenk MR, Liesegang A, Sieber-Ruckstuhl NS. Serum lipidome analysis of healthy beagle dogs receiving different diets. Metabolomics. 2019 Dec 3;16(1):1. doi: 10.1007/s11306-019-1621-3. PMID: 31797205; PMCID: PMC6890591. Commerical diets had significantly lower omega-3 fatty accids than self-made diets.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil Feeding healthy beagles medium-chain triglycerides, fish oil, and carnitine offsets age-related changes in serum fatty acids and carnitine metabolites PLoS One 2012 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23145181/ Hall JA, Jewell DE. Feeding healthy beagles medium-chain triglycerides, fish oil, and carnitine offsets age-related changes in serum fatty acids and carnitine metabolites. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49510. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049510. Epub 2012 Nov 7. PMID: 23145181; PMCID: PMC3492282. Dietary MCT, fish oil, and L-carnitine counterbalanced the effects of aging on circulating concentrations of these compounds.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil Salmon oil supplementation in dogs affects the blood flow of testicular arteries Reproduction in Domestic Animals 2021 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33378121/ Santos MC, Milani C, Zucchini P, Quirino CR, Romagnoli S, da Cunha ICN. Salmon oil supplementation in dogs affects the blood flow of testicular arteries. Reprod Domest Anim. 2021 Mar;56(3):476-483. doi: 10.1111/rda.13886. Epub 2021 Jan 19. PMID: 33378121. Salmon oil supplementation increased testicular blood supply.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil Fish oil decreases matrix metalloproteinases in knee synovia of dogs with inflammatory joint disease Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2008 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17531456/ Hansen RA, Harris MA, Pluhar GE, Motta T, Brevard S, Ogilvie GK, Fettman MJ, Allen KG. Fish oil decreases matrix metalloproteinases in knee synovia of dogs with inflammatory joint disease. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Feb;19(2):101-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2007.01.008. Epub 2007 May 24. PMID: 17531456. Dietary fish oil may exert beneficial effects on synovial fluid MMP and TIMP-2 equilibrium in the uninjured stifle of dogs with unilateral CCL injury.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil Physical response of dogs supplemented with fish oil during a treadmill training programme Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2019 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30520172/ Pellegrino FJ, Risso A, Relling AE, Corrada Y. Physical response of dogs supplemented with fish oil during a treadmill training programme. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2019 Mar;103(2):653-660. doi: 10.1111/jpn.13033. Epub 2018 Dec 5. PMID: 30520172. Fish oil supplementation slightly improve the physiological response of dogs to exercise during training.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil The effect of diet on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs BMC Research Notes 2015 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26374201/ Sharp CR, Selting KA, Ringold R. The effect of diet on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs. BMC Res Notes. 2015 Sep 15;8:442. doi: 10.1186/s13104-015-1360-0. PMID: 26374201; PMCID: PMC4570747. Dogs receiving salmon oil had higher levels of vitamin D than controls.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil High omega-3 Residual effect after salmon oil supplementation on semen quality and serum levels of testosterone in dogs Reproduction in Domestic Animals 2019 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31348842/ Santos MC, Milani C, Zucchini P, Quirino CR, Romagnoli S, da Cunha ICN. Residual effect after salmon oil supplementation on semen quality and serum levels of testosterone in dogs. Reprod Domest Anim. 2019 Oct;54(10):1393-1399. doi: 10.1111/rda.13530. Epub 2019 Aug 13. PMID: 31348842. Supplementation with salmon oil increased semen quality and testosterone levels in dogs.
Wild Alaskan salmon oil High omega-3 Omega-3 fatty acids in Boxer dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2007 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17427387/ Smith CE, Freeman LM, Rush JE, Cunningham SM, Biourge V. Omega-3 fatty acids in Boxer dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med. 2007 Mar-Apr;21(2):265-73. doi: 10.1892/0891-6640(2007)21[265:ofaibd]2.0.co;2. PMID: 17427387. Fish oil supplementation for six weeks reduces arrhythmias in Boxers with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.